Veröffentlichungen des ISDL-Lehrstuhls

Journal-Artikel (Peer Reviewed)

Weinert, C., Maier, C., Laumer, S., and Weitzel, T. (2024)
How Embeddedness Influences IT-Induced Work–Home Boundary Reduction, Work–Home Conflict, and Job Outcomes
Information & Management (61:3), , (VHB-JOURQUAL 3 Rating: B)

View Abstract
Work–home conflict (WHC) explains how IT use blurs the boundaries between work and private roles. We extend that knowledge by highlighting the importance of work–home embeddedness (WHE) and its impact on WHC. Drawing on boundary theory, we hypothesize that IT-induced work–home boundary reduction (IT-WHBR) exacerbates WHC, influencing job outcomes. Utilizing embeddedness theory and data from 862 individuals, we categorize three distinct WHE groups. Our findings clarify how IT-WHBR shapes WHC and how diverse WHE groups moderate the relationship between IT-WHBR, WHC, and job outcomes. This paper significantly contributes to existing literature by revealing dynamics within work-home interactions.

Breuer, W., Bischof, J., Hofmann, C., Hundsdoerfer, J., Küpper, H., Sarstedt, M., Schreck, P., Weitzel, T., and Witt, P. (2023)
Recent developments in Business Economics
Journal of Business Economics (JBE) , , (VHB-JOURQUAL 3 Rating: B)

Reis, L., Maier, C., Pflügner, K., and Weitzel, T. (2023)
Unintended consequences of technostress mitigation: An employee perspective on the effectiveness of mitigation measures
Forthcoming in: The DATA BASE for Advances in Information Systems , , (VHB-JOURQUAL 3 Rating: B)

View Abstract
The continuous use of IT, even beyond regular office hours, is considered a cause of technostress, which impairs the health and performance of employees. To mitigate technostress, European countries have established the right to disconnect, and many organizations are struggling to identify and implement other effective measures. Based on a qualitative study with 23 IT workers, five managers, and two CIOs, this study identifies eight technological, social, and cultural measures to mitigate common techno-stressors. By focusing on the employees' perspective, the results reveal the extent to which the measures actually work, showing that well-intended countermeasures, such as email restrictions, might have unintended negative and even harmful side effects. Our analysis shows that mitigation measures seldom work in isolation and without spillover effects. We conclude that although technostress mitigation is complex and mitigation measures adopted in isolation can fail and sometimes cause additional harm, employees still appreciate the effort

Pflügner, K., Maier, C., Thatcher, J.B., Mattke, J., and Weitzel, T. (2023)
Deconstructing technostress: A configurational approach to explaining job burnout and job performance
Forthcoming in: Management Information Systems Quarterly (MISQ) (VHB-JOURQUAL 3 Rating: A+)

Breuer, W., Bischof, J., Fabel , O., Hofmann, C., Hundsdoerfer, J., and Weitzel, T. (2023)
Business economics in a pandemic world: how a virus changed our economic life (Editorial).
Journal of Business Economics (JBE) 93, p.1-9, (VHB-JOURQUAL 3 Rating: B)

Weinert, C., and Weitzel, T. (2023)
Teleworking in the Covid-19 pandemic: The Effects of Life-Work Conflict on Job Outcomes and the Role of the IT Telework Environment
Business & Information Systems Engineering (BISE) (65:1), p.309-328, (VHB-JOURQUAL 3 Rating: B)

View Abstract
Teleworkers who live and work in the same space are vulnerable to conflicts between personal life and work (LWC). The Covid-19 lockdowns increased the intensity and risk of LWC and changed telework conditions, confronting teleworkers with difficult personal situations and often ill-equipped telework environments. To develop a better understanding of the effects of different LWC dimensions (e.g., time, strain, behavior) on work exhaustion, job satisfaction, routine and innovative job performance and the role of the IT telework environment among teleworkers in the Covid-19 pandemic, we develop and validate a research model based on a sample of 249 teleworkers. Our findings show that LWC has adverse effects on job outcomes and that the IT telework environment moderates these effects. We contribute to the telework and role conflict literature by revealing the essential role of the IT telework environment and by differentiating between routine and innovative job performance among teleworkers.

Maier, C., Thatcher, J.B., Grover, V., and Dwivedi, Y.K. (2023)
Cross-sectional research: A critical perspective, use cases, and recommendations for IS research
International Journal of Information Management , , (VHB-JOURQUAL 3 Rating: C)

View Abstract
Cross-sectional data is pervasive in information systems (IS) research. This editorial reviews cross-sectional studies, summarizes their strengths and limitations, and derives use cases of when cross-sectional data is and is not useful in answering research questions. We raise concerns about assertions of temporal causality using data collected employing cross-sectional methods with no temporal order, which makes cause and effect difficult to establish. Based on our discussion of research using cross-sectional data and its limitations, we offer four recommendations for when and how to use such data: (1) improve credibility by reporting research in detail and transparently, (2) ensure appropriate sampling, (3) take configurational perspectives, and (4) integrate cross-sectional data into mixed- or multi-method designs. By doing so, we help IS researchers position and use cross-sectional studies appropriately within their methodological repertoire.

Farooq, A., Dahabiyeh, L., and Maier, C. (2023)
Social Media Discontinuation: A Systematic Literature Review on Drivers and Inhibitors
Telematics & Informatics (77:1), 101924, (VHB-JOURQUAL 3 Rating: k.R.)

View Abstract
Recent practical reports reveal that users leave social media. This behavior is named social media discontinuation (SMD) and is attributed to stress, fatigue, and further negative effects caused while using social media. While current literature points to some causes of SMD, a systematic literature review is needed to identify current research trends, carve out future research directions, and guide practitioners in encouraging users not to close their social media accounts. We thus examine existing research on SMD and identify its drivers and inhibitors. We conducted a systematic literature review by screening 1,270 studies, published in journals and conference proceedings since 2005. We focused on 32 studies that matched our screening guidelines. Our results come up with three SMD drivers and inhibitors categories: individual, relational and platform-specific. Individual drivers and inhibitors can further be divided into cognitive, behavioral, and emotional drivers, whereas platform-specific drivers are related to content and other social media characteristics. Most drivers are from the individual or the relational category. The findings contribute to SMD research by providing a comprehensive state-of-the-art perspective on what drives and inhibits SMD. This lets us develop valuable future research directions, such as the need for future research on SMD inhibitors, which have received little attention. The study further offers valuable practical implications to social media service providers.

Meier, M., and Maier, C. (2023)
From stocks to ETFs: Explaining retail investors’ migration behavior
Internet Research (33:4), p.1249-1275, (VHB-JOURQUAL 3 Rating: k.R.)

View Abstract
Purpose Evidence suggests that retail investors who invest in individual stocks are, in the long run, largely outperformed by market indexes such as the MSCI World. While some turn to exchange traded funds (ETFs) to invest in such market indexes, few migrate completely to ETFs. This study aims to shed light on the rationale behind retail investors' partial and complete migration from stocks to ETFs. Design/methodology/approach Drawing from the pull-push-mooring framework, a qualitative study (N = 21) informs a quantitative study (N = 282) by following established mixed methods guidelines. This study develops propositions for partial and complete migration intention to ETFs. Findings Results reveal that perceived investment possibilities, perceived risk reduction, perceived administrative effort, perceived expensiveness and monetary loss costs influence the migration from stocks to ETFs. This study shows that three configurations of perceptions result in partial migration intention and one configuration results in complete migration intention. Originality/value This study explains why some migrate partially from stocks to ETFs and others migrate completely. Findings show that both migration behaviors are subject to the same perceptions, but the configurations that form the behaviors are different. While only some identified perceptions must be present for a partial migration, all of them must be present for a complete migration, as it requires retail investors to sell their stocks and accept the costs incurred to invest in ETFs instead.

Meier, M., Maier, C., Thatcher, J.B., and Weitzel, T. (2023)
Shocks and IS User Behavior: A Taxonomy and Future Research Directions
Internet Research (33:3), p. 853-889, (VHB-JOURQUAL 3 Rating: k.R.)

View Abstract
Jarring events, be they global crises such as COVID-19 or technological such as the Cambridge Analytica data incident, have bullwhip effects on billions of people’s daily lives. Such “shocks” vary in their characteristics. While some shocks cause, for example, widespread adoption of information systems (IS) as diverse as Netflix and Teams, others lead users to stop using IS, such as Facebook. To offer insights into the multifaceted ways shocks influence user behavior, this study assesses the status quo of shock-related literature in the IS discipline and develops a taxonomy that paves the path for future IS research on shocks. We conducted a literature review (N=70) to assess the status quo of shock-related studies in the IS discipline. Through a qualitative study based on users (N=39) who experienced shocks, we confirmed the findings of previous literature in an illustrative IS research context. We integrated these findings to inform a taxonomy of shocks impacting IS use. Our studies identify different ways that shocks influence user behavior. The taxonomy reveals that IS research could profit from considering environmental, private, and work shocks and shedding light on positive shocks. IS research could also benefit from examining the urgency of shocks, as there are indications that this influences how and when individuals react to a specific shock. Our findings complement previous rational explanations for user behavior by showing technology use can be influenced by shocks. Our studies offer a foundation for forward-looking research that connects jarring events to patterns of technology use.

Maier, C., Laumer, S., and Weitzel, T. (2022)
A Dark Side of Telework: A Social Comparison-based Study from the Perspective of Office Workers
Business & Information Systems Engineering (BISE) 64, p.793-811, (VHB-JOURQUAL 3 Rating: B)

View Abstract
Telework became a necessary work arrangement during the global COVID-19 pandemic. However, practical evidence even before the pandemic also suggests that telework can adversely affect teleworkers’ colleagues working in the office. Those regular office workers may experience negative emotions such as envy which, in turn, can impact work performance and turnover intention. To study the adverse effects of telework on regular office workers, we apply social comparison theory and suggest telework disparity as a new theoretical concept. From the perspective of regular office workers, perceived telework disparity is the extent to which they compare their office working situation with their colleagues’ teleworking situation and conclude that their teleworking colleagues are slightly better off than themselves. Based on social comparison theory, we develop a model of how perceived disparity associated with telework causes negative emotions and adverse behaviors among regular office workers. We analyzed data collected in one organization with telework arrangements (N = 269). Our results show that perceived telework disparity from the perspective of regular office workers increases their feelings of envy toward teleworkers and their job dissatisfaction, which is associated with higher turnover intentions and worse job performance. This study contributes to telework research by revealing a dark side of telework by conceptualizing telework disparity and its negative consequences for employees and organizations. For practice, we recommend making telework practices and policies as transparent as possible to realize the maximum benefits of telework.

Meier, M., Maier, C., Mattke, J., and Weitzel, T. (2022)
Esports: Explaining Willingness to Pay for Streaming Services
Communications of the Association for Information Systems (CAIS) (50:1), p.286-307, (VHB-JOURQUAL 3 Rating: C)

View Abstract
Online multiplayer computer game competitions—so-called esports—attract millions of spectators around the world and show spectator numbers comparable to the Super Bowl. Despite that, game publishers, which often organize these large-scale competitions, still struggle to establish esports as a profitable business venture. One way they can do so involves how they position fee-based streaming services for watching esports online. To draw spectators to their streaming services, esports organizers need to focus on attracting spectators with a high willingness to pay (WTP), and the streaming services need to satisfy spectators’ motivations. Grounded in uses and gratifications theory and a fuzzy set qualitative comparative analysis, our results show that four different configurations of motivations relate to WTP for esports streaming services. We contribute by showing that 1) motivations form WTP in the esports context, 2) multiple interacting motivations explain WTP, and 3) spectators follow different rationales for their high WTP.

Reis, L., Maier, C., and Weitzel, T. (2022)
Mixed-Methods in Information Systems Research: Status Quo, Core Concepts, and Future Research Implications
Communications of the Association for Information Systems (CAIS) (51:1), , (VHB-JOURQUAL 3 Rating: C)

View Abstract
Mixed-methods studies are on the rise in information systems (IS) research, as they deliver robust and insightful inferences combining qualitative and quantitative research. However, there is much divergence in conducting such studies and reporting their findings. Therefore, we aim (1) to evaluate how mixed-methods studies have developed in information systems (IS) research under the existence of heavily used guidelines presented by Venkatesh et al. (2013) and (2) to reflect on those observations in terms of potentials for future research. During our review, we identified 52 mixed-methods papers and quantitatively elaborated the adherence to the three core concepts of mixed-methods in terms of purpose, meta-inferences, and validation. Findings discover that only eight adhere to all three of them. We discuss the significance of our results for current and upcoming mixed-methods research and derive specific suggestions for authors. With our study, we contribute to mixed-methods research by showing how to leverage the insights from existing guidelines to strengthen future research and by contributing to the discussion of the legislation associated with research guidelines, in general, presenting the status quo in current literature

Mattke, J., Maier, C., Weitzel, T., Gerow, J.E., and Thatcher, J.B. (2022)
Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA) In Information Systems Research: Status Quo, Guidelines, and Future Directions
Communications of the Association for Information Systems (CAIS) (50:1), p.208-240, (VHB-JOURQUAL 3 Rating: C)

View Abstract
Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA) allows researchers to study how configurations of conditions lead to outcomes and thereby create rich explanations of the dynamics of complex digital phenomena. To advance a discussion on QCA in the Information Systems (IS) discipline, this paper introduces the fundamental concepts of QCA and offers guidelines for authors on how to apply QCA to advance IS research. We also provide checklists for reviewers of QCA papers. We illustrate the application of our guidelines through two exemplar studies. In exemplar study 1, we focus on IT-business strategic alignment to study the influence of different forms of alignment on firm performance. Exemplar study 2 uses the perspective of the integrated technology acceptance model to explain an individual’s intention to use a digital assistant. The contrasting results of both studies highlight how to use QCA to derive robust and reproducible results. By doing so, we advance the goal of encouraging IS scholars to use QCA for developing sophisticated models that provide accurate depictions of real-world IS phenomena.

Weinert, C., Maier, C., Laumer, S., and Weitzel, T. (2022)
Repeated IT Interruption: Habituation and Sensitization of User Responses
Journal of Management Information Systems (39:1), p.187-217, (VHB-JOURQUAL 3 Rating: A)

View Abstract
Information technology (IT) interruptions are IT-based events that capture users’ attention and interfere with other activities. This study focuses on repeated IT interruption and task performance. We draw on dual-process theory and suggest that users may get used to repeated IT interruption, known as habituation, or may become hypersensitive, known as sensitization. We validate the research model based on data from a laboratory experiment with 100 subjects by using a multivariate latent growth model (LGM). With subjective and objective measurement techniques, we show how users respond to repeated IT interruption with physiological arousal, psychological exhaustion, and behavioral task performance. Our results indicate that user responses follow different patterns over time, revealing time-dependent effects of arousal and exhaustion on task performance. We contribute to literature by providing evidence that repeated IT interruption results in unique habituation and sensitization user response patterns compared to a single IT interruption.

Maier, C., Laumer, S., Thatcher, J.B., Wirth, J., and Weitzel, T. (2022)
Trial-period technostress: a conceptual definition and mixed-methods investigation
Information Systems Research (ISR) (33:2), p.489-514, (VHB-JOURQUAL 3 Rating: A+)

View Abstract
This study employs a mixed-methods approach to examine how trial use of an IT can induce stress that leads individuals to reject the IT. In our qualitative study (Study 1), we identify eight technostress creators encountered during trial use of a specific IT. Then, in our quantitative study (Study 2), we show that these trial-period technostress creators reduce user satisfaction and increase intention to reject. Also, we demonstrate that motivation to learn and personal innovativeness in IT, two individual differences, moderate the influence of trial-period technostress creators on the intention to reject. Our mixed-methods study contributes to technostress research by identifying the specific technostress creators that influence the user during trial periods and by articulating the nature of this influence. By doing so, we illustrate how the interplay of the context- and domain-specific individual differences influence the relationship between technostress creators and the intention to reject. We extend adoption research by connecting technostress creators to rejection of IT in the trial period of IT use.

Wirth, J., Maier, C., Laumer, S., and Weitzel, T. (2022)
Laziness as an explanation for the privacy paradox: a longitudinal empirical investigation
Internet Research (32:1), p. 24-54, (VHB-JOURQUAL 3 Rating: k.R.)
Internet Research Emerald Literati Awards for Excellence (Outstanding Paper Award)

View Abstract
Purpose “Smart devices think you're “too lazy” to opt out of privacy defaults” was the headline of a recent news report indicating that individuals might be too lazy to stop disclosing their private information and therefore to protect their information privacy. In current privacy research, privacy concerns and self-disclosure are central constructs regarding protecting privacy. One might assume that being concerned about protecting privacy would lead individuals to disclose less personal information. However, past research has shown that individuals continue to disclose personal information despite high privacy concerns, which is commonly referred to as the privacy paradox. This study introduces laziness as a personality trait in the privacy context, asking to what degree individual laziness influences privacy issues. Design/methodology/approach After conceptualizing, defining and operationalizing laziness, the authors analyzed information collected in a longitudinal empirical study and evaluated the results through structural equation modeling. Findings The findings show that the privacy paradox holds true, yet the level of laziness influences it. In particular, the privacy paradox applies to very lazy individuals but not to less lazy individuals. Research limitations/implications With these results one can better explain the privacy paradox and self-disclosure behavior. Practical implications The state might want to introduce laws that not only bring organizations to handle information in a private manner but also make it as easy as possible for individuals to protect their privacy. Originality/value Based on a literature review, a clear research gap has been identified, filled by this research study.

Fischbach, K., Marx, J., and Weitzel, T. (2021)
Agent based modeling in social sciences (Editorial)
Journal of Business Economics (JBE) (91:1), p.1263-1270, (VHB-JOURQUAL 3 Rating: B)

Asbjørn , F., Araujo, T., Lai-Chong Law, E., Bae Brandtzaeg, P., Papadopoulos, S., Reis, L., Baez, M., Laban, G., McAllister, P., Ischen, C., Wald, R., Catania, F., Meyer von Wolff, R., Hobert, S., and Luger, E. (2021)
Future directions for chatbot research: an interdisciplinary research agenda
Computing (103:1), p. 2915–2942, (VHB-JOURQUAL 3 Rating: k.R.)

View Abstract
Chatbots are increasingly becoming important gateways to digital services and information—taken up within domains such as customer service, health, education, and work support. However, there is only limited knowledge concerning the impact of chatbots at the individual, group, and societal level. Furthermore, a number of challenges remain to be resolved before the potential of chatbots can be fully realized. In response, chatbots have emerged as a substantial research area in recent years. To help advance knowledge in this emerging research area, we propose a research agenda in the form of future directions and challenges to be addressed by chatbot research. This proposal consolidates years of discussions at the CONVERSATIONS workshop series on chatbot research. Following a deliberative research analysis process among the workshop participants, we explore future directions within six topics of interest: (a) users and implications, (b) user experience and design, (c) frameworks and platforms, (d) chatbots for collaboration, (e) democratizing chatbots, and (f) ethics and privacy. For each of these topics, we provide a brief overview of the state of the art, discuss key research challenges, and suggest promising directions for future research. The six topics are detailed with a 5-year perspective in mind and are to be considered items of an interdisciplinary research agenda produced collaboratively by avid researchers in the field.

Hund, A., Wagner, H., Beimborn, D., and Weitzel, T. (2021)
Digital Innovation: Review and Novel Perspective
The Journal of Strategic Information Systems (30:4), 101695, (VHB-JOURQUAL 3 Rating: A )

View Abstract
While research has produced valuable insights about digital innovation, we lack a comprehensive understanding about its core nature, and research across disciplinary boundaries lacks integration. To address these issues, we review 227 articles on digital innovation across eight disciplines. Based on our findings, we (1) inductively develop a new definition and propose a new framing of current conceptualizations of digital innovation, (2) organize central concepts of the literature on digital phenomena and show how they intersect with our conceptualization, and (3) develop a framework to organize digital innovation research according to five key themes. We conclude by identifying two particularly promising areas of future research.

Weeger, A., Wagner, H., Gewald, H., and Weitzel, T. (2021)
Contradictions and Interventions in Health IS: A Framework Based on Activity Theory
Business & Information Systems Engineering (BISE) (63:1), p.689-710, (VHB-JOURQUAL 3 Rating: B)

View Abstract
The study analyzes data collected in two case studies in the healthcare industry, which is characterized by a variety of social and technical elements forming an activity system where all elements interact with each other. The findings indicate that many problems emerging during the implementation of a health information system can be traced back to contradictions between elements of the activity systems that are created or amplified by the new IS. The authors find that some contradictions are latent and become salient when introducing a new IS, while other contradictions are (unintentionally) newly created. Also, the study shows that contradictions are more complex than hitherto assumed and often concern more than two elements of a healthcare activity system. In a similar vein, effective interventions geared toward countering these contradictions are found to account for additional complexity while not always achieving their goal. Drawing on activity theory, the authors develop a framework to coherently synthesize the findings. The study can help increase the understanding of the IS’s role within an activity system and help guide IS implementation projects aimed at avoiding unintended consequences.

Mattke, J., Maier, C., Weitzel, T., and Thatcher, J.B. (2021)
Qualitative comparative analysis in the information systems discipline: a literature review and methodological recommendations
Internet Research (31:5), p.1493-1517, (VHB-JOURQUAL 3 Rating: k.R.)
Highly Recommended Paper Award

View Abstract
Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA) is a promising, powerful method that is increasingly used for IS research. However, the Information Systems (IS) discipline still lacks a shared understanding of how to conduct and report QCA. This paper introduces the fundamental concepts of QCA, summarizes the status quo, and derives recommendations for future research. A descriptive literature review in major IS outlets summarizes how and why QCA has been used in the IS discipline, critically evaluates the status quo, and derives recommendations for future QCA studies. The literature review reveals 32 empirical research articles in major IS journals that have used the QCA method. Articles applied QCA to a broad range of research topics at the individual and organizational levels, mainly as a standalone analysis for theory development, elaboration and testing. The authors also provide evidence that most published IS research articles do not take full advantage of the potential QCA, such as analyzing necessary causal conditions or testing the robustness of QCA results. The authors provide seven actionable recommendations for future IS research using QCA.

Mattke, J., Maier, C., Reis, L., and Weitzel, T. (2021)
In-app advertising: a two-step qualitative comparative analysis to explain clicking behavior
European Journal of Marketing (55:8), p.2146-2173, (VHB-JOURQUAL 3 Rating: C)

View Abstract
Individuals only click on a very small fraction of the in-app advertisements (ads) they are exposed to. Despite this fact, organizations spend generously placing in-app ads without theoretical knowledge of how the structure and the semantics of in-app ads influence individuals’ clicking behavior. This study aims to identify how the processing of structural and semantic factors leads to clicking behavior. Based on the limited capacity theory, this paper proposes that the sequential processing of structural and semantic factors leads to clicking behavior. To mirror the sequential process, this paper applies a process-oriented configurational approach and performs a two-step qualitative comparative analysis (QCA) using 262 incidents of exposure to in-app ads. The results support the proposed sequential processing and show that neither structural nor semantic factors alone lead to clicking behavior. This paper reveals four different paths of sequential processing of in-app ads that lead to clicking behavior. The results show that individuals click on non-animated in-app ads even though these are perceived as irritating or privacy-concerning. When the in-app ads are animated, individuals do only click on them when these are not irritating, privacy-concerning and personalized. Organizations can use these findings to improve their in-app ads and generate more clicks. This study recommends that organizations place in-app ads in a prominent location, design them similar to the design of the app and use bright colors. The advertising message needs to have new and relevant information in a credible and entertaining way. Depending on the degree of personalization, organizations should use different sizes of the in-app ad and only use animation if it is unlikely that the in-app ad caused irritation or privacy concerns. Organizations can use these findings to improve their in-app ads and generate more clicks. This paper recommends that organizations place in-app ads in a prominent location, design them similar to the design of the app and with bright colors. The advertising message needs to have new and relevant information in a credible and entertaining way. Depending on the degree of personalization, organizations should use different sizes of the in-app ad and only use animation if it is unlikely that the in-app ad caused irritation or privacy concerns. From the in-app ad perspective, this study is the first to theoretically develop and empirically show the sequential processing of structural and semantic factors of in-app ads. From the methodological perspective, this study applies an advanced configurational two-step QCA approach, which is capable of analyzing sequential processes and is new to marketing research.

Mattke, J., and Maier, C. (2021)
Gamification: Explaining brand loyalty in mobile applications
AIS Transactions on Human-Computer Interaction (13:1), p.62-81, (VHB-JOURQUAL 3 Rating: k.R.)

View Abstract
Gamification is one specific way to increase mobile app users' brand loyalty. We propose that the frequency with which one uses immersion-, achievement- and social-related features relates to brand loyalty. To provide empirical evidence for this proposal, we obtained quantitative data from surveying 243 users on the mobile application Duolingo and conducted a fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA). We found that users need to frequently use immersion- and achievement-related features to result in high brand loyalty. On the contrary, we found users who infrequently use at least two gamification features have low brand loyalty. These findings extend the gamification literature by revealing an interaction between multiple gamification features and extend mobile application research by showing how gamification features relate to high and low brand loyalty. We also guide practitioners on how to identify users at risk to discontinue and reduce customer churn.

Maier, C., Laumer, S., Tarafdar, M., Mattke, J., Reis, L., and Weitzel, T. (2021)
Challenge and hindrance IS use stressors and appraisals: Explaining contrarian associations in post-acceptance IS use behavior
Journal of the Association for Information Systems (JAIS) (22:6) , p.1590-1624, (VHB-JOURQUAL 3 Rating: A)

View Abstract
Post-acceptance IS use is the key to leveraging value from IS investments. However, it also poses many demands on the user. Drawing on the challenge-hindrance stressor framework, this study develops a theory to explain how and why IS use stressors influence post-acceptance use. We identify two different types of IS use stressors: challenge IS use stressors and hindrance IS use stressors. We hypothesize that they are appraised through challenge IS use appraisal and hindrance IS use appraisal, respectively, through which they influence routine use and innovative use. We evaluate our hypotheses by surveying 178 users working in one organization and analyze the data collected using consistent partial least square (PLSc). We find that challenge IS use stressors positively influence routine use and innovative use via challenge IS use appraisal. Hindrance IS use stressors negatively influence routine use via hindrance IS use appraisal. We then dive deeper into these findings using a two-step fuzzy set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA), identifying the presence of challenge IS use stressors and challenge IS use appraisal as necessary conditions for high innovative use. We also reveal that the presence of hindrance IS use stressors and hindrance IS use appraisal only influences routine use and innovative use in the absence of challenge IS use stressors and challenge IS use appraisal. We discuss the practical relevance and transferability of our findings based on a comprehensive applicability check. Our findings advance IS scholarship of IS use stress and post-acceptance use by showing how routine use and innovative use emanate from IS use stressors.

Maier, C., Laumer, S., Joseph, D., Mattke, J., and Weitzel, T. (2021)
Turnback Intention: An Analysis of the Drivers of IT Professionals’ Intentions to Return to a Former Employer
Management Information Systems Quarterly (MISQ) (45:4), p.1777-1806 (VHB-JOURQUAL 3 Rating: A+)

View Abstract
Recent statistics indicate that most organizations prefer to fill IT vacancies by rehiring IT professionals who previously worked in the organization. Less is known about what drives IT professionals to “turnback,” a term we define as returning to employment with a former employer. To explain this important and rarely considered IT job mobility behavior, we build on job embeddedness theory and on the concepts of shocks and job dissatisfaction from, among others, the unfolding model of voluntary turnover to develop the theory of IT professional turnback. We perform fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA) of data collected from 248 IT professionals to draw conclusions about the intention among IT professionals to return to work for a former employer, and develop a midrange theory. Our results reveal two configurations contributing to high turnback intention and three configurations contributing to low turnback intention. Our model distinguishes between work shocks, personal shocks, and IT work shocks. IT shocks are a new category of shocks specific to the IT profession. We contribute theoretically by theorizing a behavior relevant to IT professionals and explaining attributes driving turnback intention.

Pflügner, K., Maier, C., and Weitzel, T. (2021)
The direct and indirect influence of mindfulness on techno-stressors and job burnout: A quantitative study of white-collar workers
Computers in Human Behavior (CHB) (115:4), 106566, (VHB-JOURQUAL 3 Rating: k.R.)

View Abstract
This study investigates how mindfulness at work influences white-collar workers’ technostress. Building on our understanding that perceived techno-stressors lead to job burnout, we apply the transactional model of stress and the model of mindfulness to understand to what degree mindfulness reduces the perception of techno-stressors and whether mindfulness mitigates the effect of perceived techno-stressors on job burnout. Our analysis of quantitative data collected in a survey of 134 white-collar workers who use information systems regularly at work confirms that mindfulness leads to lower levels of perceived techno-stressors, but does not also mitigate the effect of perceived techno-stressors on job burnout. The study contributes to technostress research by showing how mindfulness can help manage technostress but also by illustrating the boundaries of mindfulness in terms of technostress mitigation. We provide practical recommendations for applying our research results to develop technostress prevention measures and assess psychological risk factors at work.

Pflügner, K., Maier, C., Mattke, J., and Weitzel, T. (2021)
Personality Profiles that Put Users at Risk of Perceiving Technostress: A Qualitative Comparative Analysis with the Big Five Personality Traits
Business & Information Systems Engineering (BISE) (63:4), p.389-402, (VHB-JOURQUAL 3 Rating: B)

View Abstract
Some information systems research has considered that individual personality traits influence whether users feel stressed by information and communication technologies. Personality research suggests, however, that personality traits do not act individually, but interact interdependently to constitute a personality profile that guides individual perceptions and behavior. The study relies on the differential exposure-reactivity model to investigate which personality profiles of the Big Five personality traits predispose users to perceive techno-stressors. Using a questionnaire, data was collected from 221 users working in different organizations. That data was analyzed using fuzzy set Qualitative Comparative Analysis (fsQCA). Based on the results, six different personality profiles that predispose to perceive high techno-stressors are identified. By investigating personality traits in terms of profiles, it is shown that a high and a low level of a personality trait can influence the perception of techno-stressors. The results will allow users and practitioners to identify individuals who are at risk of perceiving techno-stressors based on their personality profile. The post-survey analysis offers starting points for the prevention of perceived techno-stressors and the related negative consequences for specific personality profiles.

Leyer, M., Strohhecker, J., and Kettenbohrer, J. (2021)
This analytics tool looks nice, but… I am still happy without it - Evidence from the Financial Services Industry
Journal of Service Management Research (5:1), p.20-35, (VHB-JOURQUAL 3 Rating: B)

View Abstract
The purpose of this paper is to take a behavioural perspective to reveal why employees hesitate to use business analytics in their operations throughout the whole organization. We gather quantitative data with a survey in the financial services industry with 332 responses including both users of analytic tools as well as non-users. The results reveal that on an individual level it is skills being important for usage but not perceived value. On the organizational side, perceived norms from supervisors and peers as well as accessibility are important. Further analyses on the level of different business analytic tool categories show e.g. that the attitude of employees is important for forecasting but not for other tools. Practical implications are that supervisors should be convinced of the importance of analytic tools to foster usage among employees and self service options for having access to software supporting business analytics should be offered.

Maier, C., Laumer, S., Thatcher, J.B., Sun, H., Weinert, C., and Weitzel, T. (2021)
Social Networking Site Use Resumption: A Model of Return Migration
Journal of the Association for Information Systems (JAIS) (22:4), p.1037-1075, (VHB-JOURQUAL 3 Rating: A)

View Abstract
This research explains why individuals resume using social networking sites (SNSs) after terminating their use. Drawing on return migration theory, we developed a theory-driven model of SNS resumption that includes two novel antecedents of SNS resumption behavior: nonuse-related dissatisfaction and use-related satisfaction. We also hypothesize that dispositional resistance to change moderates the impact of nonuse-related dissatisfaction and use-related satisfaction on resumption. We used a mixed methods approach to refine and evaluate the research model. Study 1 used the critical incident method to identify SNS-specific antecedents of nonuse-related satisfaction and use-related satisfaction, allowing us to refine the research model. Study 2 used structural equation modeling to evaluate our research model using two three-wave surveys: one with recent ex-users who recently decided to stop using and delete their profiles on Facebook and one with long-standing ex-users who stopped using and deleted their profiles on Facebook a long time ago. We found support for most relationships in our model: nonuse-related dissatisfaction and use-related satisfaction drive resumption intentions, and dispositional resistance moderates these relationships. Furthermore, we found that the time elapsed since users discontinued Facebook moderated these relationships such that the effect of nonuse-related dissatisfaction on resumption intention is stronger for recent ex-users and the effect of use-related satisfaction is stronger for long-standing ex-users. Our findings advance the understanding of resumption, an understudied behavior of the IT lifecycle and IT use and acceptance research.

Reis, L., Maier, C., Mattke, J., Creutzenberg, M., and Weitzel, T. (2020)
Addressing User Resistance Would Have Prevented a Healthcare AI Project Failure
MIS Quarterly Executive (19:4), p. 279-296, (VHB-JOURQUAL 3 Rating: B)

View Abstract
Integrating artificial intelligence (AI) into existing work routines involves invasive changes, and the resulting user resistance can lead to project failure. We describe a failed AI project at a large hospital to implement a cognitive agent and identify the root causes of the user resistance that led to the failure. Based on the lessons learned, we provide recommendations for addressing the causes of resistance for the three types of AI—automation, decision support and engagement.

Oehlhorn, C., Maier, C., Laumer, S., and Weitzel, T. (2020)
Human resource management and its impact on strategic business-IT alignment: A literature review and avenues for future research
The Journal of Strategic Information Systems (29:4), , (VHB-JOURQUAL 3 Rating: A )
SIG GTM Best Paper Award Nominee

View Abstract
From an information systems perspective, organizations striving to leverage a strategic alignment between Information Technology (IT) and business areas often underestimate the role of human resource management in creating business value. This literature review analyzes 71 scholarly articles to assess the role of human resource management in supporting the strategic alignment between business and IT. We identify the organizational role of individual human resources in strategic alignment, their contribution to more effective strategic alignment, and how human resource management supports such contribution. Based on these insights, we formulate propositions and identify avenues for future research.

Mattke, J., Maier, C., Reis, L., and Weitzel, T. (2020)
Herd behavior in social media: The role of Facebook likes, strength of ties, and expertise
Information & Management (57:8), 103370, (VHB-JOURQUAL 3 Rating: B)

View Abstract
When do social media users click on sponsored content or intend to visit the website at a later time? A qualitative comparative analysis (QCA) using arguments based on herd theory, strength of ties, and social distance shows that only “likes” from socially close and knowledgeable users can consistently generate click-through or view-through intentions. Considering social tie strength in a herd behavior context, the analysis of sufficient configurations for click- and view-through intentions provides a nuanced perspective on social media user behavior and social influence. For instance, click-through intention requires observing a “like” from a close person, while view-through intentions can also develop after observing “likes” from less close acquaintances, yet in the last case only if the user assumes the acquaintance is better informed regarding the sponsored content. In addition, a “like” from a close friend deemed better informed can even make a user click on a sponsored content that was not considered valuable before.

Maier, C., Mattke, J., Pflügner, K., and Weitzel, T. (2020)
Smartphone use while driving: A fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis of personality profiles influencing frequent high-risk smartphone use while driving in Germany
International Journal of Information Management (55), 102207, (VHB-JOURQUAL 3 Rating: C)

View Abstract
Smartphone use while driving causes car crashes, injuries and high death rates. To date, there is little research into what motivates frequent smartphone use while driving. In this study, we draw on psychological research indicating that personality profiles defined as constellations of multiple personality traits, influence individual beliefs and behaviors. We apply fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA) to survey data to derive profiles of drivers who use their smartphone frequently while driving. Our results indicate that personality profiles affect smartphone use behavior while driving and that three equifinal profiles, i.e. distinct constellations of the big five personality traits, influence frequent smartphone use while driving. Interestingly, a single trait can be low in one profile and high in another profile and, depending on the other traits, both profiles might reflect drivers using their smartphone frequently. We contribute to the literature that frequent smartphone use while driving is, to some degree, grounded in personality and that just looking at singular traits can yield misleading results. Complementing these theoretical insights by post-survey interviews, we can reveal distinct measures that reduce frequent smartphone use for each of the three profiles.

Mattke, J., Maier, C., Reis, L., and Weitzel, T. (2020)
Bitcoin investment: a mixed methods study of investment motivations
European Journal of Information Systems (EJIS) (30:3), p. 261-285, (VHB-JOURQUAL 3 Rating: A)

View Abstract
Bitcoin is a well-established blockchain-based cryptocurrency that has attracted a great deal of attention from media and regulators alike. While millions of individuals invest in bitcoin, their motivations for doing so are less clear than with traditional investment decisions. We argue that the technical nature of bitcoin investments gives it unique characteristics and, consequently, that we lack a thorough understanding of how this affects the motivations behind bitcoin investment. We use a mixed method approach consisting of qualitative (n = 73) and quantitative (n = 150) studies and fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA) to identify seven bitcoin-specific motivations (profit expectancy, ease of bitcoin acquisition, support of bitcoin ideology, investment skills, risk affinity, anticipated and experienced inaction regret) and how configurations of them explain bitcoin investment. The findings reveal, among others, that some individuals invest in bitcoin because they support the bitcoin ideology. Contrary to the traditional investment literature, profit expectancy is not a necessary condition to the extent that there is one empirical configuration of motivations that explains that individuals also invest in bitcoin even if they do not expect profits. The results disclose non-trivial investment motivation configurations and lay the groundwork for future studies of the role of cryptocurrencies in society.

Weinert, C., Maier, C., Laumer, S., and Weitzel, T. (2020)
Technostress mitigation: an experimental study of social support during a computer freeze
Journal of Business Economics (JBE) (90:8), p.1199-1249, (VHB-JOURQUAL 3 Rating: B)

View Abstract
In situations when Information Systems (IS) do not work as intended, using IS might hinder their users and let them perceive technostress; this then comes along with reduced user performance and high perceptions of exhaustion, among others. To alleviate these consequences, a mitigating behavior of stressed users is to seek social support to get instrumental (e.g., from the help desk) or emotional (e.g., consolation) backing. Using insights from psychology literature that suggest social support reduces the consequences of stressors, this paper investigates how instrumental and emotional support reduces the consequences of techno-stressors, such as reduced end-user performance, techno-exhaustion, and physiological arousal, caused by techno-unreliability such as a computer freeze. In a laboratory setting, measurements of skin conductance were used to evaluate the technostress of 73 subjects, manipulated by techno-unreliability and then treated with instrumental and emotional support. The findings indicate that social support increased end-user performance as well as reduced techno-exhaustion and physiological arousal. In particular, instrumental support directly influenced end-user performance, techno-exhaustion, and physiological arousal, whereas emotional support only influenced techno-exhaustion. Further, this study provides the first indications that the effect of social support on technostress depends on individual differences.

Maier, C. (2020)
Overcoming pathological IT use: How and why IT addicts terminate their use of games and social media
International Journal of Information Management 51, 102053, (VHB-JOURQUAL 3 Rating: C)

View Abstract
IT addiction scholarship indicates that pathological use of IT such as games or social media is on the rise. While pathological IT use, such as addictive behavior, can negatively affect private, social and work life, individuals displaying addictive behavior toward an IT are challenged to overcome their addiction. In this study, we aim to offer insights into how and why IT addicts stop their pathological IT use by terminating to use the IT. We interview individuals who have overcome their IT addiction to games and social media, finding that some IT addicts terminate their use of the IT without external support because they had a strong intrinsic or extrinsic motivation or because they felt stressed, frustrated or guilty. Other IT addicts required external support, contacting a therapist after unsuccessful attempts to quit or after experiencing a shocking event. This study establishes a new strand of research into ending pathological IT use and becoming an ex-user. We theorize IT addiction as part of the IT lifecycle alongside adoption, usage and discontinuation. We also offer practical insights into why some individuals can terminate pathological IT use on their own, while others require external support.

Tarafdar, M., Maier, C., Laumer, S., and Weitzel, T. (2020)
Explaining the link between technostress and technology addiction for social networking sites: A study of distraction as a coping behavior
Information Systems Journal (ISJ) 30:1, 96-124, (VHB-JOURQUAL 3 Rating: A)
ISJ’s top cited paper in 2022

View Abstract
This paper investigates under what conditions stress from the use of SNS is linked to addiction to the use of the same SNS. Integrating three theoretical strands-the concept of feature‐rich Information Technology (IT), the theory of technology frames, and distraction as a coping behaviour-we theorize two types of coping behaviours in response to stressors experienced from the use of SNS. These are ‐ distraction through use of the same SNS and distraction through activities outside the use of the SNS. We hypothesize relationships between stressors from SNS use, the two coping behaviours and SNS addiction. We further articulate the role of SNS use habit. We test the hypotheses through a three‐wave survey of 444 Facebook users with data collected at three different points in time. The paper's contributions are to theorize and empirically validate the psychological concept of distraction as a coping behaviour in response to stress from the use of SNS and, in doing so, explain why there may be a link between technostress from and technology addiction to the use of the same SNS.

Weinert, C., Maier, C., Laumer, S., and Weitzel, T. (2020)
IS Reappraisal and Technology Adaptation Behaviors: A Longitudinal Study During an IS Implementation
ACM SIGMIS Database (51:4), p.11-39, (VHB-JOURQUAL 3 Rating: B)

View Abstract
Employees have to adapt to newly implemented information systems (IS) because they are often perceived as radical changes or disruptions. To understand such adaptation behavior, IS research suggests that employees first appraise the new IS and second perform technology adaptive behaviors. However, while the psychology literature indicates that adaptation is a continuous process unfolding over time, previous IS literature treats adaptation towards IS implementation as a rather singular, noniterative process. As firms continue to implement IS, an understanding of reappraisal and the influence of technology adaptation behavior is vital to ensure successful implementations. Therefore, the present paper investigates reappraisal and the influences of four different technology adaptation behaviors. We conducted a longitudinal study and used hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) to validate our research model. The findings reveal that employees reappraise the newly implemented IS over time regarding perceived opportunity, threat, and controllability and demonstrate that technology adaption behaviors influence such reappraisal. One specific finding is that employees might get into positive or negative reappraisal loops. We thereby contribute to research by extending the adaptation behavior literature and add a new piece of the puzzle to understand how employees adapt towards newly implemented IS over time.

Mattke, J., Maier, C., Hund, A., and Weitzel, T. (2019)
How an Enterprise Blockchain Application in the U.S. Pharmaceuticals Supply Chain is Saving Lives
MIS Quarterly Executive (18:4), (p. 245 - 261), (VHB-JOURQUAL 3 Rating: B)

View Abstract
This article describes the MediLedger Project, which has built a blockchain ecosystem application that will prevent counterfeit pharmaceuticals from entering the U.S. pharmaceuticals supply chain. From the lessons learned, we recommend to 1) use a "benevolent dictator" and base governance on "consensus through collaboration", 2) to not store verified transactions on the blockchain but to instead store the verification on the blockchain, 3) to use zero-knowledge proofs to verify product and transaction authenticity while preserving full privacy 4) and to use blockchain application capabilities that are not found in traditional technologies, to fix ineffective IS landscapes.

Maier, C., Laumer, S., Wirth, J., and Weitzel, T. (2019)
Technostress and the hierarchical levels of personality: a two-wave study with multiple data samples
European Journal of Information Systems (EJIS) 28:5, 496-522, (VHB-JOURQUAL 3 Rating: A)

View Abstract
Even though IS use has numerous benefits for users and organisations, such as improved user performance and greater productivity, an increasing number of users experience technostress. Since technostress can result in decreased user well-being, it is important to understand what leads users to perceive it. Recent technostress research points to the relationship between personality traits and the perception of technostress as a research gap. Given that personality traits are structured hierarchically, we study how and which levels of user personality influence the perception of technostress. In developing our research model, we select personality traits from the three hierarchical levels of personality: neuroticism, personal innovativeness in IT (PIIT), and IT mindfulness. The results of 2 two-wave studies analysing data collected in an organisational setting (sample 1) and through mTurk (sample 2) reveal that all three personality traits influence the perception of technostress, with IT mindfulness having the strongest impact. This study contributes by revealing that user personality and, primarily, IT mindfulness influence the perception of technostress. Additionally, our findings reveal an inverted u-curved influence of techno-stressors on user performance, deepening our understanding of how the perception of technostress influences user reactions.

Wirth, J., Maier, C., Laumer, S., and Weitzel, T. (2019)
Perceived information sensitivity and interdependent privacy protection: a quantitative study
Electronic Markets (em) 29:3, p.359-378, (VHB-JOURQUAL 3 Rating: B)

View Abstract
From a theoretical point of view, previous research has considered information sensitivity in terms of potential negative consequences for someone who has disclosed information to others and that information becomes public. However, making information public could also have negative consequences for other individuals as well. In this study, we extend the concept of information sensitivity to include negative consequences for other individuals and apply it in a quantitative research study. The results prove that the extended concept of information sensitivity leads to a better understanding of privacy-related concepts especially in an interdependent privacy setting. We contribute to theory by defining the extended concept of information sensitivity and by drawing conclusions on how to use it in future privacy research studies.

Brown, M., Quesenberry, J., Niederman, F., and Weitzel, T. (2018)
New Approaches to Optimizing the Digital Workplace: Special Issue Editorial
MIS Quarterly Executive 17:4, p. ix-xxiii (VHB-JOURQUAL 3 Rating: B)

Buettner, R., Sauer, S., Maier, C., and Eckhardt, A. (2018)
Real-time Prediction of User Performance based on Pupillary Assessment via Eye Tracking
MIS Quarterly Executive (10:1), 26-56, (VHB-JOURQUAL 3 Rating: B)
Best Paper Award

View Abstract
We propose a method to predict user performance based on eye-tracking. The method uses eye-tracking-based pupillometry to capture pupil diameter data and calculates -based on a Random Forest algorithm - user performance expectations. We conducted a large-scale experimental evaluation (125 participants aged from 21 to 61 years) and found promising results that pave the way for a dynamic real-time adaption of IT to a user's mental effort and expected user performance. We have already achieved a good classification accuracy of user performance after only 40 seconds (5% of the mean total trial time that our participants took to complete our experiment). The non-invasive contact-free method can be applied cost-efficiently both in research and practical environments.

Laumer, S., Maier, C., and Weitzel, T. (2017)
Information quality, user satisfaction, and the manifestation of workarounds: a qualitative and quantitative study of enterprise content management system users
European Journal of Information Systems (EJIS) (26:4), 333-360, (VHB-JOURQUAL 3 Rating: A)

View Abstract
In this paper, we focus on a critical aspect of work in organizations: using information in work tasks which is provided by information systems (IS) such as enterprise content management (ECM) systems. Our study based on the IS success model, 34 interviews, and an empirical study of 247 ECM system users at a financial service provider indicates that it is appropriate to differentiate between contextual and representational information quality as two information quality dimensions. Furthermore, we reveal that in addition to system quality, the two information quality dimensions are important in determining end-user satisfaction, which in turn influences the manifestation of workarounds. Our study also finds that employees using workarounds to avoid an ECM system implemented several years is negatively related to individual net benefits of the ECM system. Hence, we conclude that when investigating large-scale IS such as ECM systems, it is important to differentiate among information quality dimensions to more deeply understand end-user satisfaction and the resulting manifestation of workarounds. Moreover, this research guides organizations in implementing the most appropriate countermeasures based on the importance of either contextual or representational information quality.

Shareef, M., Dwivedi, Y.K., Laumer, S., and Archer, N. (2016)
Citizens' Adoption Behavior of Mobile Government (mGov): A Cross-Cultural Study
Information Systems Management 33:3, 268-283, (VHB-JOURQUAL 3 Rating: C)

View Abstract
This study aims to address the paradigms of consumers' adoption behavior for mobile government, posits the factors which pursue citizens' intention to adopt mobile government services, and reveals the impact of cultural dimensions in perceiving driving factors of mobile government adoption. The mobile government adoption model was developed and tested among users of three different countries, namely Bangladesh, Canada, and Germany. The finding suggests the rationale that cross-cultural differences impact consumers' perception of mobile government adoption behavior.

Laumer, S., Maier, C., Eckhardt, A., and Weitzel, T. (2016)
Work routines as an object of resistance during information systems implementations: Theoretical foundation and empirical evidence
European Journal of Information Systems (EJIS) 25:4, pp.317-343, (VHB-JOURQUAL 3 Rating: A)

View Abstract
When implementing new information systems, organizations often face resistance behavior from employees who avoid or underutilize the system. We analyze the extent to which such user resistance behavior is explained by users' perceptions of the technology compared with their perceptions of work routines. We developed a research model based on work system theory and evaluated it using a study (N=106) of a human resources information system (HRIS) implementation in one organization. The results show that work routines are an object of resistance during IS implementations. We identify perceived usefulness and perceived ease of executing work routines as perceptions of work routines during an IS implementation that have a strong influence on user resistance behavior. Additionally, our results show that the perceived ease of executing the work routines mediates the impact of perceived ease of use on user resistance behavior. In practice, our findings imply that interventions during IT implementations should focus on both the new technology and changing work routines.

Wirtky, T., Laumer, S., Eckhardt, A., and Weitzel, T. (2016)
On the Untapped Value of IT in HRM - a Literature Review
Communications of the Association for Information Systems (CAIS) 38:2, , (VHB-JOURQUAL 3 Rating: C)

View Abstract
The "war for talent" is still on. Annually conducted surveys have indicated for years that one third of all organizations are unable to fill vacant job positions with suitable candidates. Responding to these and other challenges, human resource management (HRM) is expected to transform itself. General opinion holds that the HRM transformation has just begun and that the potential of IT in HRM is not yet fully exploited. Examining the value potential of IT in HRM, existing IS research predominately studies the impact of IT on HRM. We contribute by examining the reverse impact in three steps. First, we use Thompson's theory of organizations in action to examine the expected impact of the HRM transformation on IT ("to-be" situation). Second, we use Kohli and Grover's IT value typology and review 20 years of the publication history ("as-is" situation). Finally, we relate expectations to actual review findings. We find that the HRM transformation should lead to a major shift in technology type used in organizations. However, this shift is not recognized yet, which is why our literature review reveals considerable unaddressed value potential of IT in HRM. We finish the paper by outlining IS research avenues in the context of HRM.

Weitzel, T., and Heinzl, A. (2015)
The Impact of Information Systems and Technology in the E-Business Age (Editorial).
Journal of Business Economics (JBE) 85, p.319-322, (VHB-JOURQUAL 3 Rating: B)

von Stetten, A. (2015)
Control Modes in IT Outsourcing: Findings from a Case Study Series on Nearshoring in Europe
Controlling - Zeitschrift für erfolgsorientierte Unternehmenssteuerung (27:12), pp. 703-708 (VHB-JOURQUAL 3 Rating: k.R.)

View Abstract
This work provides empirical insights into the exercise of and the interplay between formal and informal modes of control in IT outsourcing. The findings stem from a case study series comprising 18 outsourcing arrangements with clients from Belgium, Germany, and Switzerland and vendors from various Central and Eastern European countries.

Laumer, S., Maier, C., Eckhardt, A., and Weitzel, T. (2015)
User Personality and Resistance to Mandatory Information Systems in Organizations: A Theoretical Model and Empirical Test of Dispositional Resistance to Change
Journal of Information Technology 31:1, 67-82, (VHB-JOURQUAL 3 Rating: A)

View Abstract
This research is driven by the assumption made in several user resistance studies that employees are generally resistant to change. It investigates the extent to which employees' resistance to IT-induced change is caused by individuals' predisposition to resist change. We develop a model of user resistance that assumes the influence of dispositional resistance to change on perceptual resistance to change, perceived ease of use, and usefulness, which in turn influence user resistance behavior. Using an empirical study of 106 HR employees forced to use a new human resources information system, the analysis reveals that 17.0 to 22.1 percent of the variance in perceived ease of use, usefulness, and perceptual resistance to change can be explained by the dispositional inclination to change initiatives. The four dimensions of dispositional resistance to change - routine seeking, emotional reaction, short-term focus and cognitive rigidity - have an even stronger effect than other common individual variables, such as age, gender, or working experiences. We conclude that dispositional resistance to change is an example of an individual difference that is instrumental in explaining a large proportion of the variance in beliefs about and user resistance to mandatory IS in organizations, which has implications for theory, practice, and future research.

Eymann, T., Kundisch, D., Wehrmann, A., Legner, C., Schell, A., and Weitzel, T. (2015)
Meinung/Dialog: Are Requirements for Graduates of Master and PhD Programs in Business and Information Systems Engineering Changing?
Business & Information Systems Engineering (BISE) (6:6), p. 367-376, (VHB-JOURQUAL 3 Rating: B)

Schlosser, F., Beimborn, D., Weitzel, T., and Wagner, H. (2015)
Achieving Social Alignment between Business and IT - An Empirical Evaluation of the Efficacy of IT Governance Mechanisms
Journal of Information Technology 30, 119-135, (VHB-JOURQUAL 3 Rating: A)

View Abstract
How can firms improve the degree of social alignment between their business and IT units? Many years of research have shown the importance of business-IT alignment and its various facets, yet research on the efficacy of IT governance mechanisms to improve business-IT alignment is scarce. In this paper, we develop a model of social alignment at an operational level that considers the degree of social capital between an organization's business and IT units, IT personnel's business understanding, and a set of formal and informal IT governance mechanisms that drive the creation of social alignment and business value. Using survey data from 132 U.S. banks, we show that social alignment is driven to varying degrees by a broad variety of IT governance mechanisms ranging from top management support and IT representation on the executive board to joint IT planning and IS trainings, regular meeting cycles and liaison units. Our research contributes substantially to the practical demand on business-IT alignment research for an effective toolkit of IT governance mechanisms.

Maier, C., Laumer, S., Weinert, C., and Weitzel, T. (2015)
The Effects of Technostress and Switching-stress on Discontinued Use of Social Networking Services: A Study of Facebook Use
Information Systems Journal (ISJ) (25:3), p. 275-308, (VHB-JOURQUAL 3 Rating: A)

View Abstract
Although much research has been done on the adoption and usage phases of the IS life cycle, the final phase, termination, has received little attention. This paper focuses on the development of discontinuous usage intentions, i.e. the behavioral intention in the termination phase, in the context of social networking services (SNSs), where it plays an especially crucial role. We argue that users stressed by using SNSs try to avoid the stress and develop discontinuous usage intentions, which we identify as a behavioral response to SNS-stress creators and SNS-exhaustion. Furthermore, as discontinuing the use of an SNS also takes effort and has costs, we theorize that switching-stress creators and switching-exhaustion reduce discontinuous usage intentions. We tested and validated these effects empirically in an experimental setting monitoring individuals who stopped using Facebook for a certain time period and switched to alternatives. Our results show that SNS-stress creators and SNS-exhaustion cause discontinuous usage intentions, and switching-stress creators and switching-exhaustion reduce these intentions.

Maier, C., Laumer, S., Eckhardt, A., and Weitzel, T. (2015)
Who really quits? A longitudinal analysis of voluntary turnover among IT personnel
ACM SIGMIS Database 46:4, p. 26-47, (VHB-JOURQUAL 3 Rating: B)

View Abstract
In response to high turnover rates among IT personnel compared to other groups of professionals, IS research has focused on factors contributing to IT personnel's turnover intention; however, only few studies have focused on actual turnover. To shed more light on actual turnover behavior, this longitudinal study of 125 IT personnel theorizes and analyzes the influence of job-related beliefs on turnover intention and behavior over time. Our results confirm a previously documented turnover intention-behavior gap, finding that 91 out of 125 survey participants indicate a high turnover intention, but that only 27 reported actual turnover behavior within the following 12 months. We further theorize this turnover intention-behavior gap by identifying IT personnel's personality as an important moderating variable for this relation. Specifically, IT personnel more disposed to resisting change translate turnover intentions into actual turnover behavior more seldom than IT personnel less disposed to resisting change. Our study also focuses on how personality influences changes in IT personnel's job-related beliefs and whether or not actual turnover behavior has a positive influence on these beliefs. Our results show that more change-resistant IT personnel change their degrees of job satisfaction and organizational commitment more seldom than less change-resistant personnel and that IT personnel who quit their job change their degree of job satisfaction and organizational commitment more frequently. Our results also show that intentions are a more suitable predictor for less change-resistant individuals than for change-resistant ones.

Laumer, S., Maier, C., and Eckhardt, A. (2015)
The impact of business process management and applicant tracking systems on recruiting process performance: An empirical study
Journal of Business Economics (JBE) (85:4), p.421-453, 10.1007/s11573-014-0758-9 (VHB-JOURQUAL 3 Rating: B)

View Abstract
This research focuses on the effects of different business process management components in combination with information technology on recruiting process performance. The results of a study of Germany's largest 1,000 business enterprises (response rate 13.1 percent) reveal that business process analysis, business process improvement and the usage of applicant tracking systems reduce recruiting process costs. Specifically, the cycle time of the recruiting process can be shortened significantly through business process controlling and process analysis, and by using an applicant tracking system that supports the design and evaluation of key performance indicators. Business process standardization combined with applicant tracking systems and business process documentation as well these systems used together with business process controlling have a significant positive impact on stakeholder satisfaction with the recruiting process. The general quality of the process can be improved through business process controlling as well as through a combination of applicant tracking systems and business process controlling. Our results reveal that several components of the business process management in conjunction with a supporting applicant tracking system have differing impacts on recruiting process performance. This paper discusses these diverse effects of business process management on process performance and draws implications for information systems success research.

Maier, C., Laumer, S., and Eckhardt, A. (2015)
Information technology as daily stressor: pinning down the causes of burnout
Journal of Business Economics (JBE) (85:4), p. 349-387, (VHB-JOURQUAL 3 Rating: B)

View Abstract
The research presented in this article aims to identify information technology-related stressors in daily work life that might contribute to burnout. We provide a detailed analysis of techno- and work-stressors, techno- and work-exhaustion, as well as the consequences of and interrelations among these perceptions. Techno-stressors and techno-exhaustion are theorized as antecedents of work-stressors, work-exhaustion, and work-related outcomes, such as job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and turnover intention. The proposed model assesses whether using information technology (IT) or other work-stressors cause exhaustion and consequently negative outcomes in terms of low job satisfaction, low organizational commitment, and high turnover intention. The results of an empirical study with 306 employees show that IT usage causes exhaustion because techno-stressors contribute to techno-exhaustion, which in turn influences work-exhaustion significantly. Our results also reveal that work-exhaustion negatively impacts job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and turnover intention, whereas techno-exhaustion only indirectly causes these psychological and behavioral responses through work-exhaustion. Finally, post hoc analyses identify that employees who use IT as a supporting tool for their daily work process (such as HR workers) report higher levels of techno-exhaustion than employees for whom IT is the core of their work (IT professionals, such as software developers).

Eckhardt, A., Laumer, S., Maier, C., and Weitzel, T. (2015)
The effect of personality on IT personnel's job-related attitudes: Establishing a dispositional model of turnover intention across IT job types
Journal of Information Technology 31:1, 48-66, (VHB-JOURQUAL 3 Rating: A)

View Abstract
Research on IT personnel has observed that the major predictors for turnover intention are job satisfaction and organizational commitment (Joseph et al. 2007). However, less is known about how these predictors are determined and how they vary according to the different job types of IT personnel. Hence, we develop and evaluate a dispositional model of turnover Intention across IT job types as the first approach in IT turnover research combining the personality traits of the five-factor model (McCrae and Costa 2006) and the basic turnover model found among Western IS professionals (Lacity et al. 2008) into one research model. By the help of the model we analyze the role of personality in IT personnel turnover across four groups of IT roles: consultants, programmers, system engineers and system administrators. The results of an empirical analysis of 813 IT personnel reveal significant differences across the four groups in terms of personality and job-related attitudes. In terms of personality traits, system engineers rank highest in openness and conscientiousness, IT consultants in extraversion, programmers in neuroticism, and system administrators in agreeableness. In 50% of all cases, personality traits are significant predictors for job-related attitudes. Additionally, they indirect affect IT personnel turnover intention. Neuroticism, extraversion and conscientiousness are also important indirect predictors for turnover intention, whereas openness has only a weak effect and agreeableness no measurable effect.

Moos, B., Wagner, H., Beimborn, D., and Weitzel, T. (2015)
The Contagious Power of Innovativeness: How Different Corporate Partners Contribute to a Firm's Knowledge
International Journal of Innovation Management (19:4), article 1550042, (VHB-JOURQUAL 3 Rating: B)

View Abstract
As innovation is often created in networks, a company's business partners influence its innovative outcome. Although many studies investigate innovation networks as a means to explore and exploit external knowledge, virtually no research has focused on the characteristics of external partners - in particular their innovativeness. This study considers axial and lateral corporate partners and investigates the differential impact of the partners' innovativeness on a company's knowledge stocks (market, technological, organizational, process, and product knowledge). Drawing on the literature on inter-organizational networks and using survey data from the manufacturing industry, the results extend theory by revealing that not only relationships with partners but also their properties - partner innovativeness - are important for a company's knowledge stock. In essence our results suggest that the innovativeness of a firm's axial and lateral partners positively yet diversely influences its various knowledge stocks.

Maier, C., Laumer, S., Eckhardt, A., and Weitzel, T. (2015)
Giving too much Social Support: Social Overload on Social Networking Sites
European Journal of Information Systems (EJIS) 24:5, pp. 447-464, (VHB-JOURQUAL 3 Rating: A)

View Abstract
As the number of messages and social relationships embedded in social networking sites (SNS) increases, the amount of social information demanding a reaction from individuals increases as well. We observe that, as a consequence, SNS users feel they are giving too much social support to other SNS users. Drawing on social support theory, we call this negative association with SNS usage "social overload" and develop a latent variable to measure it. We then identify the theoretical antecedents and consequences of social overload and evaluate the social overload model empirically using interviews with twelve and a survey of 571 Facebook users. The results show that extent of usage, number of friends, subjective social support norms, and type of relationship (online-only vs. offline friends) are factors that directly contribute to social overload while age has only an indirect effect. The psychological and behavioral consequences of social overload include feelings of SNS exhaustion by users, low levels of user satisfaction, and a high intention to reduce or even stop using SNS. The resulting theoretical implications for social support theory and SNS acceptance research are discussed and practical implications for organizations, SNS providers, and SNS users are drawn.

Eymann, T., Kundisch, D., Wehrmann, A., Legner, C., Schell, A., and Weitzel, T. (2014)
Meinung/Dialog: Ändern sich die beruflichen Anforderungen an Masterabsolventen und Doktoranden der Wirtschaftsinformatik?

Dwivedi, Y.K., Wastell, D., Laumer, S., Zinner Henriksen, H., Myers, M.D., Bunker, D., Elbanna, A., Ravishankar, M.N., and Srivastava, S.S. (2014)
Research on information systems failures and successes: Status update and future directions
Information Systems Frontiers 17:1, p. 143-157, (VHB-JOURQUAL 3 Rating: B)

View Abstract
Information systems success and failure are among the most prominent streams in IS research. Explanations of why some IS fulfill their expectations, whereas others fail, are complex and multi-factorial. Despite the efforts to understand the underlying factors, the IS failure rate remains stubbornly high. A Panel session was held at the IFIP Working Group 8.6 conference in Bangalore in 2013 which forms the subject of this Special Issue. Its aim was to reflect on the need for new perspectives and research directions, to provide insights and further guidance for managers on factors enabling IS success and avoiding IS failure. Several key issues emerged, such as the need to study problems from multiple perspectives, to move beyond narrow considerations of the IT artifact, and to venture into underexplored organizational contexts, such as the public sector.

George, B., Hirschheim, R., and von Stetten, A. (2014)
Through the Lens of Social Capital: A Research Agenda for Studying IT Outsourcing
Strategic Outsourcing: An International Journal (7:2), p. 107-134 (VHB-JOURQUAL 3 Rating: k.R.)

View Abstract
Purpose: Motivated by the belief that the social capital concept enables IT outsourcing researchers to capture more of the nuances of the client-vendor relationship in IT outsourcing arrangements, this paper proposes a new research agenda for IT outsourcing. Design/methodology/approach: The paper builds a comprehensive framework of social capital based on Nahapiet and Ghoshal (1998) to examine the IT outsourcing life-cycle. Past research on IT outsourcing is examined applying the parameters of the framework to identify issues that have been addressed in research on IT outsourcing and to uncover the gaps in past research. Findings: The social capital framework is applied to IT outsourcing which suggests new avenues for future outsourcing research. Research limitations/implications: While past research has identified success factors for IT outsourcing, a significant number of outsourcing arrangement still fail to meet expectations. The research agenda presented in this paper encourages an examination of IT outsourcing from a different perspective to determine how to successfully manage IT outsourcing. Originality/value: The paper provides a new framework that is useful for identifying the relationships among past research in IT outsourcing as well as for identifying potential topics for future research.

Zolper, K., Beimborn, D., and Weitzel, T. (2014)
The effect of social network structures at the business/IT interface on IT application change effectiveness
Journal of Information Technology (29:2), p.148-169, (VHB-JOURQUAL 3 Rating: A)

View Abstract
The challenge of managing the relationship between a firm's business and IT in order to derive business value from IT is an important topic on researchers' and practitioners' agendas. The focus of most related research and management actions has been on the top management or project management levels. However, conflicts frequently arise within the line organization when applications are extended, enhanced, maintained, or otherwise changed operationally outside software development projects. This study focuses on the impact of relationships at the application-change level and strives to identify and explain favorable social structures for effective business/IT dialog at the operational level. We collected data in seven comprehensive case studies, including 88 interviews and corresponding surveys, and applied social network analysis to show that three social structures at the implementation level influence the degree to which IT applications are maintained and enhanced in line with business requirements: (1) interface actors connecting business and IT, (2) the relationships between interface actors and the corresponding unit, and (3) the relationships between interface actors and other employees in their unit. In three cases, less favorable structures are revealed that correspond to low application change effectiveness and software applications that do not meet business requirements. The other cases benefit from favorable social structures and thus enhance fulfillment of business requirements and result in higher IT business value. This paper contributes to IS research by helping to explain why companies may not provide favorable IT services despite favorable relationships at the top management level and successful application development projects.

Eckhardt, A., Laumer, S., Maier, C., and Weitzel, T. (2014)
The Transformation of People, Processes, and IT in E-Recruiting: Insights from an Eight-year Case Study of a German Media Corporation
Employee Relations (36:4), p. 415-431, (VHB-JOURQUAL 3 Rating: B)

View Abstract
Purpose - There is only scarce research about the transformation of e-HRM in general, and of the e-recruiting function in particular. Further, there is not much known of the transformational implications for the related people, process, and information technology (IT). Design/methodology/approach - To analyze the transformation of e-recruiting caused by external influences outside of the organization, we report the results of an eight-year case with a media corporation in order to derive and describe five consecutive steps of an e-recruiting transformation model. Findings - We come up with five stages (transformation of tools, transformation of systems, transformation of workflows, transformation of tasks, and transformation of communication), each influenced by external developments and market tendencies (War for Talent, increasing number of applications, job market switch, globalization of job market, changing communication behavior). Research limitations/implications - This research contributes to literature by explaining the drivers of an e-HRM transformation and the different stages of this transformation process differentiated by the affected people, processes and IT. However, it only observes the transformation in one company, hence the transformation of further e-HRM functions in other companies might differ. Practical implications - We highlight both the transformation of e-recruiting and for the related people, processes and IT, so companies could observe their current status of e-recruiting transformation. Originality/value - This paper represents the first longitudinal approach observing the transformation of e-recruiting by describing different stages and external influences.

Wagner, H., Beimborn, D., and Weitzel, T. (2014)
How Social Capital among IT and Business Units Drives Operational Alignment and IT Business Value
Journal of Management Information Systems (31:1), p. 241-272, (VHB-JOURQUAL 3 Rating: A)

View Abstract
It is widely acknowledged that IT and business resources need to be well aligned to achieve organizational goals. Yet, year after year, chief information officers (CIOs) still name business-IT alignment a key challenge for IT executives. While alignment research has matured, we still lack a sound theoretical foundation for alignment. Transcending the predominantly strategic executive level focus, we develop a model of 'operational alignment' and IT business value that combines a social perspective of IT and business linkage with a view of interaction between business and IT at non-strategic levels, such as in daily business operations involving regular staff. Drawing on social capital theory to explain how alignment affects organizational performance, we examine why common suggestions like "communicate more" are insufficient to strengthen alignment and disclose how social capital between IT and business units drives alignment and ultimately IT business value. Empirical data from 136 firms confirms the profound impact of operational business-IT alignment, composed of social capital and business understanding of IT, on IT flexibility, IT utilization, and organizational performance. The results show that social capital theory is a useful theoretical foundation for understanding how business IT alignment works. The findings suggest that operational alignment is at least as important as strategic alignment for IT service quality, that managers need to focus on operational aspects of alignment beyond communication by fostering knowledge, trust and respect, and that IT utilization and flexibility are appropriate intermediate goals for business-IT alignment governance.

Zolper, K., Beimborn, D., and Weitzel, T. (2013)
When the river leaves its bed: analyzing deviations between planned and actual interaction structures in IT change processes
Journal of Information Technology (18:4), p. 333-353, (VHB-JOURQUAL 3 Rating: A)

View Abstract
There is ample evidence of deviations between the actual and planned interaction structures between a firm's IT department and business units. Such deviations can hinder senior managers from governing their IT organizations effectively because they do not know how work really gets done. This paper develops an explanation for why actual structures differ from planned structures. Understanding this phenomenon is indispensable for managers to govern the real organization, to uphold compliance with important standards (e.g., ITIL, COBIT), to decide whether the formal or the actual organization is more effective, and, finally, to identify management actions that support the optimal structure. To develop this understanding, we analyze the interaction structures at the interface between firms' business units and IT units in four rich cases, using data from 56 interviews and 47 questionnaires, and applying qualitative methods and social network analysis, which give us deep insights into planned and actual interaction among employees. We test two different explanations for deviations of actual from planned interaction structures and find that boundary-spanning theory provides the dominant explanation for such deviations: Inclined to span the business/IT boundary most effectively, the actors involved deviate from planned structures especially when other structures offer better boundary-spanning potential, which is influenced primarily by cross-domain knowledge. In addition, relationships also play an important role. On the positive side, relationships provide opportunities for such deviations, while on the negative side, a conflict-laden relationship might hinder deviations even if they were advantageous.

Laumer, S., Beimborn, D., Maier, C., and Weinert, C. (2013)
Enterprise Content Management
Business & Information Systems Engineering (BISE) (5:6), p. 449-452, (VHB-JOURQUAL 3 Rating: B)

Laumer, S., Beimborn, D., Maier, C., and Weinert, C. (2013)
WIRTSCHAFTSINFORMATIK (55:6), p. 453-456, (VHB-JOURQUAL 3 Rating: B)

Joachim, N., Beimborn, D., and Weitzel, T. (2013)
The Influence of SOA Governance Mechanisms on IT Flexibility and Service Reuse
The Journal of Strategic Information Systems (22:1), p. 86-101, (VHB-JOURQUAL 3 Rating: A )

View Abstract
While many firms have introduced SOA, only one in five have achieved anticipated benefits such as increased IT flexibility or reuse. Industry analysts assume that a lack of SOA governance is the main reason why SOA projects fail. Addressing the substantial research gap on SOA governance this paper theoretically and empirically investigates which SOA governance mechanisms are needed to achieve the benefits of SOA, such as increasing IT flexibility and reusing services. The proposed theoretical SOA governance model is evaluated using data from 81 SOA-using organizations. Overall, the results confirm the relevance of a variety of SOA governance mechanisms (structures, processes, and employees/relations), but at the same time, that IT infrastructure flexibility and service reuse are influenced by different mechanisms. Key governance mechanisms that show a strong effect on infrastructure flexibility are using standards, service management processes, educating employees, and IT/business communication while reuse can only be increased through service management, standards and qualification. Contrary to expectations, implementing new, dedicated decision-making bodies for SOA hampers organizations in achieving higher degrees of IT flexibility and reuse, and a firm is better off using existing IT decision-making bodies.

Moos, B., Beimborn, D., Wagner, H., and Weitzel, T. (2013)
The Role of Knowledge Management Systems for Innovation: An Absorptive Capacity Perspective
International Journal of Innovation Management (17:5), article 1359919, (VHB-JOURQUAL 3 Rating: B)

View Abstract
What is the role of Knowledge Management Systems (KMS) for a firm's innovativeness and absorptive capacity (ACAP)? Research shows that a firm's capacity to acquire and utilize relevant knowledge, i.e., its absorptive capacity, is decisive for innovation success. We develop a theoretical model that links the availability and usage of KMS with a firm's ACAP and its organizational knowledge to explain its contribution for a firm's innovation success. Using data from 222 manufacturing firms we can show that the availability of a KMS in a firm affects its innovation success by contributing to its ACAP. Looking at the impact of different knowledge types on innovativeness, the results show that only technological knowledge is a substantial determinant of innovation success but not market knowledge.

Maier, C., Laumer, S., Eckhardt, A., and Weitzel, T. (2013)
Analyzing the impact of HRIS implementations on HR personnel's job satisfaction and turnover intention
The Journal of Strategic Information Systems (22:3), p. 193-207, (VHB-JOURQUAL 3 Rating: A )
One of the 5 most highly cited papers published in Journal of Strategic Information Systems

View Abstract
An in-depth case of an e-Recruiting system implementation is used while focusing on the level of Human Resource (HR) employees to research unintended consequences during the implementation of Human Resources Information Systems (HRISs). We develop a model that integrates the belief and attitude component of the technology acceptance literature with work-related consequences. We provide evidence for an indirect effect of attitudes toward the HRIS on turnover intention that is fully mediated by job satisfaction. Our results contribute to the literature on systems implementations and technology adoption by suggesting work-related outcomes as important additional success variables.

Laumer, S., Eckhardt, A., and Weitzel, T. (2012)
Online Gaming to Find a New Job - Examining Job Seekers' Intention to Use Serious Games as a Self-Assessment Tool
Zeitschrift für Personalforschung: German Journal of Research in Human Resource Management (26:3), p. 218-240 (VHB-JOURQUAL 3 Rating: C)

View Abstract
Serious games can be used as self-assessment tools in recruiting processes. We develop a model explaining jobseekers' intentions to use these applications, which help them to gain a realistic idea of the job at hand and allows them to submit their application only if the job truly fits their individual profile. Drawing on organizational justice theory and the technology acceptance literature, our model is empirically evaluated using data from 1,882 jobseekers. The results indicate that jobseekers' intention to use self-assessments is driven in particular by its perceived ease of use, perceived usefulness, perceived enjoyment, and perceived selection fairness. In contrast, the issue of privacy security has no significant impact on jobseekers' intentions. For firms, using serious games as a self-assessment tool can lead to a reduction in the total number of unsuitable applications they receive.

von Stetten, A., Beimborn, D., and Weitzel, T. (2012)
Analyzing and managing the impact of cultural behaviour patterns on social capital in multinational IT project teams - A case study approach
Business & Information Systems Engineering (BISE) (4:3), p.137-151 (VHB-JOURQUAL 3 Rating: B)

View Abstract
This paper contributes to a better understanding and to mitigate negative consequences of cultural diversity in multinational IT project teams. Our research explores how culture-specific behaviours impact social capital among team members and how firms can manage the strains. In the existing IS culture literature, culture-specific behaviours are - if at all - traced back to single culture dimensions. In contrast, the approach proposed in this article goes one step further suggesting that it is necessary to combine several culture dimensions to better understand a certain culture-specific behaviour and consequently be able to better manage resulting relationship problems in multinational settings. Conducting exploratory case studies in six multinational IT projects, two exemplary cultural behaviour patterns (face maintenance in India and post-communism in the Czech Republic) are identified, and management actions to avoid project performance problems are derived. The results contribute to a better understanding and management of the negative impact of culturespecific behaviours in IT project teams and corroborate that research based on culture dimensions, such as those conceptualized by Hofstede or House et al., is valuable for understanding multi-country IS projects. The findings in particular suggest that aggregating these dimensions to cultural behaviour patterns improves their explanatory power and consequently the management's capability to mitigate the negative consequences of cultural diversity.

von Stetten, A., Beimborn, D., and Weitzel, T. (2012)
Auswirkungen kulturspezifischer Verhaltensmuster auf das Sozialkapital in multinationalen IT-Projektteams - Ein Fallstudienansatz

View Abstract
Die vorliegende Forschungsarbeit hilft, negative Auswirkungen kultureller Unterschiede in multikulturellen IT-Projektteams besser verstehen und mittels geeigneter Managementmaßnahmen adressieren zu können. Es wird untersucht, wie sich kulturspezifische Verhaltensweisen auf das Sozialkapital multikultureller Teams auswirken und wie ein Unternehmen dadurch entstehende Spannungen besser bewältigen kann. Die bestehende Literatur, die sich mit den kulturellen Auswirkungen im Kontext von Informationssystemen beschäftigt, führt kulturspezifische Verhaltensweisen - wenn überhaupt - nur auf einzelne Kulturdimensionen zurück. Der in dieser Arbeit vorgeschlagene Ansatz geht dagegen einen Schritt weiter. Wir argumentieren, dass eine Kombination und Aggregation mehrerer Kulturdimensionen zu so genannten kulturellen Verhaltensmustern notwendig ist, um ein bestimmtes kulturspezifisches Verhalten besser verstehen und die sich daraus ergebenden Beziehungsprobleme in multikulturellen Szenarien in der Folge besser nachvollziehen und bewältigen zu können. Auf Basis von Fallstudien in sechs länderübergreifenden IT-Projekten werden zwei beispielhafte kulturspezifische Verhaltensmuster betrachtet (Gesichtswahrung in Indien und Post-Kommunismus in Tschechien). Zudem werden geeignete Managementmaßnahmen abgeleitet, die zur Vermeidung der sich in den Projekten ergebenden Probleme beitragen. Die gewonnenen Erkenntnisse fördern ein besseres Verständnis sowie das Management negativer Auswirkungen kulturspezifischen Verhaltens in IT-Projektteams und bestätigen, dass Forschung auf Basis bewährter Kulturdimensionen hierfür einen wichtigen Beitrag liefern kann.

Eckhardt, A., Laumer, S., Maier, C., and Weitzel, T. (2012)
Bewerbermanagementsysteme in deutschen Großunternehmen: Wertbeitrag von IKT für dienstleistungsproduzierende Leistungs- und Lenkungssysteme
Journal of Business Economics (JBE) (82:4), p. 47-75, (VHB-JOURQUAL 3 Rating: B)

View Abstract
Zusammenfassung: In stürmischen Zeiten für die Personalbeschaffung deutscher Großunternehmen aufgrund von Fachkräftemangel können Beschaffungsmanagementsysteme zur Gewinnung neuer Mitarbeiter wertvolle Unterstützung für die Rekrutierung leisten. Zur Untersuchung des Wertbeitrages des automatisierten Aufgabenträgers dieser Systeme, der sogenannten Bewerbermanagementsysteme, wurden Personalverantwortliche der 1.000 größten Unternehmen in Deutschland befragt. Auf Basis der Ergebnisse dieser repräsentativen Umfrage konnten folgende Erkenntnisse für den Wertbeitrag von Bewerbermanagementsystemen als Teil dienstleistungsproduzierender Leistungs- und Lenkungssysteme gewonnen werden. Durch den Einsatz dieser Systeme werden primär Zeitreduktionen innerhalb einzelner Prozessabschnitte der Personalbeschaffung und eine Kostenreduktion für die interne Bearbeitung von Bewerbungen erreicht. Eine Verbesserung der Qualität der eingestellten Wunschkandidaten kann hingegen nicht realisiert werden. Es bestehen keine Unterschiede beim Wertbeitrag für das unternehmerische Leistungs- und Lenkungssystem. Auch die Unternehmensgröße hat keinen Einfluss auf denWertbeitrag der Bewerbermanagementsysteme.

Wagner, H., and Weitzel, T. (2012)
How To Achieve Operational Business-IT Alignment: Insights From A Global Aerospace Firm
MIS Quarterly Executive (11:1), p. 25-36 (VHB-JOURQUAL 3 Rating: B)

View Abstract
A common challenge facing firms is how to effectively embed strategic business-IT alignment into daily routines at the operational level. Based on our findings from following an alignment project in a global aerospace industry leader for almost two years, we put forward a framework, which we call OperA, for establishing operational level business-IT alignment. This framework has three dimensions - knowledge, communication and trust, and identifies alignment paths for three strategic situations faced by firms: major planned changes, regular operations and major unplanned changes. Each path is anchored in a different dimension of the framework. The global aerospace case shows how different mechanisms used for each path improve business processes and enable successful change. The case also revealed frequent pitfalls and dependencies between the dimensions and associated mechanisms that top managers should be aware of as they strive to achieve operational business-IT alignment.

Beimborn, D., Joachim, N., and Weitzel, T. (2012)
Do Service-Oriented IT Architectures facilitate Business Process Outsourcing? A Study in the German Service Industry
Journal of Business Economics (JBE) (82:4), p. 77-108 (VHB-JOURQUAL 3 Rating: B)

View Abstract
How does a firm's IT architecture affect its potential to outsource business processes? As Information Technology (IT) has become many firms' essential operational infrastructure or "backbone", we are interested in scrutinizing to what extent the kind of IT architecture affects a firm's boundaries or the plasticity of its boundaries. Focusing on the particular concept of service-oriented architectures (SOA), we concretely ask: How does SOA affect business process outsourcing potentials? Since SOA is widely expected to modularize the IT implementation of business processes, it should increase business process outsourcing (BPO) in terms of buying in the provision of single business functionalities. We develop and empirically evaluate a theoretical model that conceptualizes the relationship between SOA and BPO. Questionnaire data from 115 firms give first evidence that SOA facilitates BPO. By increasing IT modularity, SOA supports BPO by increasing sourcing flexibility and, in particular, operational benefits, while at the same time lowering financial risks and strategic risks, such as lock-in. Overall, however, firms see SOA-based BPO mainly in an operational context with low hidden costs and little strategic benefits.

Beimborn, D., Miletzki, T., and Wenzel, S. (2011)
Platform as a Service (PaaS)

Beimborn, D., Miletzki, T., and Wenzel, S. (2011)
Platform as a Service (PaaS)
Business & Information Systems Engineering (BISE) (3:6), p. 381-384 (VHB-JOURQUAL 3 Rating: B)

Walentowitz, K., and Beimborn, D. (2011)
The Social Antecedents of Business/IT Alignment - Reviewing the Role of Social Network Structure in Alignment Research
International Journal on IT/Business Alignment and Governance (IJITBAG) (2:2), p. 15-32 (VHB-JOURQUAL 3 Rating: k.R.)

View Abstract
Business/IT alignment is a major source of business value generated from IT and social structures at the interface between a firm's business and IT units are of vital importance to business/IT alignment. Yet, there is a substantial gap in understanding the nature of these social structures. Based on a literature review comprising all related articles published in the AIS Senior Scholars' Basket journals between January 2000 and August 2011, this paper identifies antecedents of alignment related to social network structure. These are translated into formal SNA concepts. The identification and formalization of social network structures allow IT governance to implement social engineering mechanisms influencing the social network structure, thus improve business/IT alignment and IT value. Examples for such translated arguments are high degree centrality of CIOs vis-à-vis other executives and strong ties in terms of cross-domain knowledge between CIOs and other executives. Finally, important avenues for future research are highlighted.

Junglas, I., Niehaves, B., Spiekermann, S., Stahl, B.C., Weitzel, T., Winter, R., and Baskerville, R. (2011)
Editorial: The inflation of academic intellectual capital: the case for design science research in Europe
European Journal of Information Systems (EJIS) (20:1), p. 1-6, (VHB-JOURQUAL 3 Rating: A)

Beimborn, D., and Joachim, N. (2011)
The Joint Impact of Service-Oriented Architectures and Business Process Management on Business Process Quality: An Empirical Evaluation and Comparison
Information Systems and e-Business Management (9:3), p. 333-362, (VHB-JOURQUAL 3 Rating: C)

View Abstract
What is the interplay between Business Process Management (BPM) and Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) in achieving high business process quality? In this paper, we empirically investigate the impact of both SOA and BPM on business process quality in terms of straight-through processing (STP), business-to-business integration, quality control, as well as standardization and consolidation of business processes. For the empirical evaluation of our model, we use the data of 157 German service firms. The results show that the SOA paradigm has still received rather low adoption rates in the industry. However, SOA, BPM, and related information technologies have a direct positive impact on business process quality and the analysis provides evidence for the complementarities of BPM and SOA since interaction effects between them have an additional significant impact on business process quality. Consequently, firms having adopted SOA can more effectively apply BPM.

Laumer, S., Eckhardt, A., and Weitzel, T. (2010)
Electronic Human Resources Management in an E-Business Environment
Journal of Electronic Commerce Research (11:4), p. 240-25 (VHB-JOURQUAL 3 Rating: C)

View Abstract
This special issue on Electronic Human Resources Management (E-HRM) in an E-Business environment looks at opportunities and challenges associated with recruiting and developing a firm's workforce in a digital world characterized by endemic talent scarcity, changing values and shifting on- and offline behaviors of candidates and employees. We first draw on a Delphi study with leading HR executives from 25 internationally renowned large firms and on a quantitative survey with 144 HR managers from German top 1,000 firms to delineate the key trends and issues for modern HR executives. Demographic challenges and the war for talent are seen as the most important trends in firms of all sizes and in all industries, even ahead of, for example, Social Media or the global economic crisis. Resulting from these trends, our survey reveals that HR managers' most pressing challenges are staff retention and internal and external employer branding. Overall, the results emphasize the importance for an E-HRM that needs to be both effective - adequately fill vacancies - and efficient - make best use of scarce resources. The papers in the special issue address some of the open issues identified. Overall, in a peer-review process two out of nine submitted articles were selected for the special issue (22 per cent acceptance). The first paper by Stefan Strohmeier scrutinizes how e-portfolios can improve e-recruiting and talent management. The second paper by Sharna Wiblen, David Grant and Kristine Dery uses a single case study to learn how a shift from HRM to E-HRM can affect talent management and people in an organization and transform a firm's IT and HR function.

Münstermann, B., Eckhardt, A., and Weitzel, T. (2010)
The performance impact of business process standardization - an empirical evaluation of the recruitment process
Business Process Management Journal (16:1), p. 29-56 (VHB-JOURQUAL 3 Rating: C)

View Abstract
Purpose of this paper: This paper aims at showing if business process standardization has an impact on business process performance and should be considered as both a valid BPM measure and a regular driver of process success. Design/methodology/approach: An empirical analysis based on data from 156 firms is used to evaluate the hypothesis that process standardization positively impacts business process time, cost, and quality. Findings: Firstly, the paper proposes a model and empirical operationalization to analyze the impact of process standardization on process performance. Secondly, empirical analysis shows that business process standardization has a decisive impact on process performance (R2: 61.9%). Precisely, there is a significant impact on process time, cost, and most notably on quality. The results indicate that the impact is strongest in services firms and varies subject to a firm's strategy type. Practical implications: The results suggest that business process standardization should regularly be considered a prime action item and major tool in a firm's BPM toolbox. What is original/value of paper: The paper is among the first to empirically show the vital impact of process standardization on performance. For academics and practitioners interested in business process management and the value impact of processes, the results suggest adding process standardization as a regular argument into research on and management of business processes. Keywords: Business process standardization, business process performance, process time, process cost, process quality, staff recruitment.

Münstermann, B., von Stetten, A., Eckhardt, A., and Laumer, S. (2010)
The Performance Impact of Business Process Standardization - HR Case Study Insights
Management Research Review (früher: Management Research News) (33:9), p. 924-939 (VHB-JOURQUAL 3 Rating: C)

View Abstract
Purpose: This paper intends to enhance the understanding of business process standardization and how it contributes to generate business value. This research is a step towards a solid theoretical framework around business process standardization. Design/methodology/approach: A single case study conducted in a global operating company is completed. Standardization of a certain business process (in our case the recruiting process) is shown to contribute to business value. Findings: By standardizing its recruiting process, the company was able to reduce the "Time-to-Hire" from 92 to 69 days and the overall costs of the recruiting process by about 30 percent. The quality of the applicant data has clearly improved. Clarity and transparency of the recruiting process could be increased while the administrative expense within the HR departments in the distinct business locations could be reduced significantly. Research limitations: As with every case study, the generalizability of our findings is limited because a) the results are based on a single case only and b) because we focus solely on one process - the recruiting process - and do not include other business processes. Practical implications: The case study can be useful for any company that intends to standardize its recruiting process. Clear indications of how to achieve business value out of process standardization are given. Originality/value: This study provides a clear definition of what business process standardization is and how it can lead to increased business value. To practitioners clear indications of how to achieve increased business value by business process standardization are provided. Keywords: Business process standardization, Business value, Human resources information systems, Recruitment Paper type: Case study

Laumer, S., Eckhardt, A., and Trunk, N. (2010)
Do as your parents say? - Analyzing IT adoption influencing factors for full and under age applicants
Information Systems Frontiers (12:2), p. 169-183 (VHB-JOURQUAL 3 Rating: B)

Weitzel, T., Eckhardt, A., and Laumer, S. (2009)
A Framework for Recruiting IT Talent: Lessons from Siemens
MIS Quarterly Executive (8:4), p. 123-197 (VHB-JOURQUAL 3 Rating: B)

View Abstract
Recruiting and attracting IT talent remains a challenge for IT executives and will once again come to the forefront as the world's economies begin to emerge from recession. As this happens, we expect skills shortages to rise up the IT management agenda, especially as the "baby boomer" generation begins to retire and as the number of computer science graduates reduces. To help IT recruiters face the challenges, we provide a four-quadrant framework that segments recruitment activities on two dimensions - the recruitment timescale and the scarcity of the skills required. Based on the experiences of German industrial giant Siemens, we have identified the recruitment methods that can be applied in each quadrant and provide an indication of their relative costs. We conclude with eight recommendations for improving the recruitment of IT talent in an era when skilled people increasingly expect to be contacted - even wooed - by prospective employers rather actively searching for opportunities themselves.

Laumer, S., von Stetten, A., and Eckhardt, A. (2009)
Business & Information Systems Engineering (BISE) (1:3), p. 263-265 (VHB-JOURQUAL 3 Rating: B)

Laumer, S., von Stetten, A., and Eckhardt, A. (2009)

Eckhardt, A., Laumer, S., and Weitzel, T. (2009)
Who influences whom? - Analyzing workplace referents' social influence on IT adoption and non-adoption
Journal of Information Technology (14.1), p. 11-24 (VHB-JOURQUAL 3 Rating: A)

Wagner, H., Blumenberg, S., and Beimborn, D. (2009)
Knowledge Transfer Processes in IT Outsourcing Relationships and their Impact on Shared Knowledge and Outsourcing Performance
International Journal of Information Management (29:5), p. 342-352 (VHB-JOURQUAL 3 Rating: C)

View Abstract
What is the impact of specific knowledge-transfer processes on the level of shared knowledge and, in turn, on outsourcing performance in outsourcing relationships? Drawing on a series of case studies covering IT providers and banks, we investigate several applied knowledge-transfer processes dedicated to the transfer of explicit or tacit knowledge between outsourcing banks and their providers. We examine the differential influence of various types of knowledge transfer on shared knowledge between the parties and on the resulting outsourcing performance. Results depict the differential impact of various knowledge-transfer processes dedicated to the transfer of explicit, or tacit knowledge, respectively, on the development of shared knowledge. Interestingly, the combination of both knowledge-transfer processes dedicated to the transfer of explicit knowledge and those dedicated to the transfer of tacit knowledge proves to be most effective. Furthermore the results indicate that high levels of shared knowledge positively influence outsourcing performance. In addition to previous literature, we found transfer processes for explicit knowledge in an outsourcing context to consist of two dimensions: The content dimension, primarily focused on in literature, and the sender-receiver dimension of transfer processes which are rarely addressed in outsourcing literature. The content dimension embraces mechanisms such as trainings, SLAs and standards that define how content has to be interpreted, whereas the sender-receiver dimension of transfer processes of explicit knowledge defines explicit, documented interaction structures between parties.

Eckhardt, A., and Laumer, S. (2009)
An IT-Architecture to Align E-Recruiting and Retention Processes
International Journal of E-Services and Mobile Applications (1:2), p. 38-61 (VHB-JOURQUAL 3 Rating: k.R.)

Beck, R., Beimborn, D., Weitzel, T., and König, W. (2008)
Network effects as drivers of individual technology adoption: Analyzing adoption and diffusion of mobile communication services
Information Systems Frontiers (10:4), p. 415-429 (VHB-JOURQUAL 3 Rating: B)

Wüllenweber, K., Beimborn, D., Weitzel, T., and König, W. (2008)
The impact of process standardization on business process outsourcing success
Information Systems Frontiers (10:2), p. 211-224 (VHB-JOURQUAL 3 Rating: B)

View Abstract
What is the impact of business process standardization on BPO success? This paper argues that there is a direct impact of process standardization on BPO success, due to production cost economies, and also an indirect effect via improved contrac-tual and relational governance resulting from better monitoring opportunities and facilitated communication and coordination. This threefold impact of standardization on BPO success is empirically confirmed using data from 335 BPO ventures in 215 German banks.

Beimborn, D., Martin, S., and Franke, J. (2008)
Value Chain Crossing: Insights and Opportunities for Future Research
International Journal of Electronic Business (6:1), p. 93-109 (VHB-JOURQUAL 3 Rating: C)

View Abstract
In this article, we present a research framework that tackles a promising area of e-Business largely neglected before, namely the lateral cooperation of firms from two different industries that interconnect their business processes by means of electronic integration. We refer to this kind of e-Business cooperation as "value chain crossing" and explore, as an exemplary application domain, the integration of financial processes in non-banks and financial service providers. To support our research proposal, we provide exploratory findings from an empirical survey accompanied by a series of case studies which indicate that research in this area of e-Business is worthwhile to be conducted. We identified empirical evidence for a large potential of value chain crossing but also found substantial inhibitors for the adoption of this idea.

Wagner, H., and Weitzel, T. (2007)
Towards an IT production function: understanding routines as fundamental for IT value creation
Journal of Enterprise Information Management (20:4), p. 380-395 (VHB-JOURQUAL 3 Rating: C)

View Abstract
The goal of this paper is to identify core IT value drivers in firms and to model them as an IT production function to help disclose and measure the IT value creation process and to guide managers in seeking adequate ways of employing the IT resource. Based on a critical review of the literature on the resource-based view, an IT value framework based on the constructs IT capability, resource, and routine is developed and then formalized as an IT production function. Organizational routines are decisive for turning firm resources into an IT capability and in turn into better business process performance. We show how the IT value creation process in general and routines in particular can be measured and formalized. As the interaction between IT and business units is crucial for IT value generation, organizational routines provide for important knowledge flows that turn firm resources into value generating capabilities. We propose a concrete method to measure and evaluate these routines and thereby contribute to making the IT resource controllable. Our main contribution is the identification and analytical formalization of the role of rou-tines for IT value creation. We show how insights from the resource-based view, micro-economic theory (Cobb-Douglas/CES production function), and Granovetter's strength of ties argument can be used to describe, measure, and guide IT value creation and to develop an IT production function.

Malinowski, J., Weitzel, T., and Keim, T. (2007)
Decision support for team staffing: An automated relational recommendation approach
Decision Support Systems (DSS) (45:3), p.429-477 (VHB-JOURQUAL 3 Rating: B)

View Abstract
Selecting individuals for teams is only rarely supported by Information Systems. Existing systems only consider whether a person has the required technical skills and abilities for a job. Another important aspect is neglected - the match between the person and the team members in terms of interpersonal compatibility. We present a decision support system based on a relational recommendation approach for providing an automated pre-selection of candidates that fit best with future team members. The relational recommender contributes to theory by proposing an IS-supported relational approach to team staffing and to practice by offering time and cost savings for HR professionals.

Beimborn, D., Franke, J., Gomber, P., Wagner, H., and Weitzel, T. (2006)
Die Bedeutung des Alignments von IT und Fachressourcen in Finanzprozessen: Eine empirische Untersuchung

View Abstract
Wie kann die Ressource IT wertschaffend eingesetzt werden? Auf der theoretischen Grundlage des Resource-based View of IT sowie der Alignment-Literatur argumentieren wir, dass die tatsächliche Nutzung der IT sowie das Zusammenspiel zwischen IT und Fachabteilungen grundlegend für die Leistung von IT-intensiven Geschäftsprozessen sind. Das entwickelte Wirkmodell wird in einer Studie unter den 1.000 größten Banken Deutschlands empirisch untersucht. Es zeigt sich, dass die Leistung des untersuchten Geschäftsprozesses, wie hypothetisiert, stark von einem Alignment zwischen der IT- und der Geschäftsdomäne abhängt. Ebenso wird deutlich, dass ein bestimmtes Ausmaß fachlicher Ressourcen entscheidend ist und auch eine herausragende IT-Ausstattung und -Unterstützung keine Mängel hinsichtlich dieser fachlichen Ressourcen ausgleichen kann. Die Ergebnisse bestätigen damit wichtige Einsichten der Literatur zu Alignment auch auf Prozessebene und zeigen im Gegensatz zu bestehender Literatur theoretisch wie empirisch, dass der Wertbeitrag der IT nicht ohne Berücksichtigung der Nicht-IT-Fachkompetenz untersucht werden kann.

Gewald, H., Wüllenweber, K., and Weitzel, T. (2006)
The Influence of Perceived Risks on Banking Managers' Intention to Outsource Business Processes - A Study of the German Banking and Finance Industry
Journal of Electronic Commerce Research (7:2), p. 78-96 (VHB-JOURQUAL 3 Rating: C)

View Abstract
Information Technology (IT) is a key productive factor in the banking and finance industry (BFI) as almost the entire production and delivery of services can in principle be digitized. Driven by cost pressure and new competitors, outsourcing IT together with the relevant business processes is a promising way to focus on core competencies and to restructure the corporate value chain. While there is a rich literature on the risks and benefits of IT outsourcing, little is known about the next step of business process outsourcing (BPO) and especially the associated risks. Our main hypothesis is that the perceived risks associated with BPO strongly influence the intention of managers to outsource business processes. Based on an empirical survey of BFI managers covering 90% of the cumulated German BFI balance sheet, it is shown that perceived risk does indeed have a significant impact on managers' attitudes towards BPO and that these attitudes strongly influence the outsourcing decision. Financial risks turn out to be a major risk facet, exerting pressure on banks which decide solely in terms of potential cost savings. In addition, the high importance of performance risk requires banks to invest in sophisticated vendor management.

Son, S., Weitzel, T., and Laurent, F. (2006)
Designing a process-oriented framework for IT performance management systems
The Electronic Journal Information Systems Evaluation (8:3), p. 219-228 (VHB-JOURQUAL 3 Rating: k.R.)

View Abstract
In recent years, control and governance of internal services such as Information Technology (IT) have become quite critical in organisations due to the enormous size of their expenditure. As a result, managers have faced growing pressure to measure the performance of IT departments. Several concepts have been developed during the last few years such as IT governance, IT scorecards, and benchmarking that have been considered by IT and business execu-tives. But surprisingly, a recent study by the IT Governance Institute (ITGI) that covered 335 CEOs and CIOs in 21 countries, reported while more than 91 percent of executives recognize that information technology (IT) is vital to the success of their businesses, more than two-thirds of CEOs are not comfortable answering questions about governance and control over their IT processes.“ The study validates that the major problem continues to be ”the inadequate view of how well IT is performing“ (ITGI, 2004). Hence, decision-makers and stakeholders within private and public companies are insisting that IT executives provide hard facts on mission and IT performance. As such, a promising performance management system is required: setting performance targets, designing efficiency and effectiveness measure, systematically and accurately measuring outcomes, and then using the results for fact-based decision-making. This paper shows, which concepts and frameworks currently exist to measure the performance of the IT department and its delivered IS services. We discuss how a performance management system might be designed and implemented with the purpose to monitor and improve the IT function within a major financial institution in Europe. Finally, this paper pro-vides lessons learned and some recommendations for further research in the area of IT performance management.

Weitzel, T., Beimborn, D., and König, W. (2006)
A Unified Economic Model of Standard Diffusion: The Impact of Standardization Cost, Network Effects and Network Topology
Management Information Systems Quarterly (MISQ) Volume 30, p. 489-514 (VHB-JOURQUAL 3 Rating: A+)

View Abstract
This paper is motivated by the following question: What drives the diffusion of a communication standard and what diffusion results can we expect? Past literature provides many instructive but mostly unrelated answers. Frequent findings are startup problems, penguin effects, and tendencies towards monopoly. But substantial problems in applying the models to concrete standardization problems reveal that the dynamics are probably more complex. Not all networks are ultimately conquered by a single standard once it has attracted a certain number of users. And not all diffusion results are either complete or no standardization. We address the question of the conditions of particular diffusion behaviors by developing a formal standardization model that captures all fragmented phenomena in a unified approach. Drawing from findings of other research we incorporate the structure of the underlying user network as an important determinant for diffusion behaviors. The approach allows us to disclose varying conditions that generate frequently observed standardization behaviors as special parameter constellations of the model. Using equilibrium analysis and computer simulations we identify a standardization gap that reveals the magnitude of available standardization gains for individuals and the network as a whole. The analysis shows that network topology and density have a strong impact on standard diffusion and that the renowned tendency towards monopoly is far less common. We also report how the model can be used to decide on corporate standardization problems.

Beimborn, D., Franke, J., and Weitzel, T. (2005)
The Role of Experience for Outsourcing Evaluation

View Abstract
How can outsourcing be used to improve financial processes and what role does managers' experience with outsourcing play for outsourcing decisions? An empirical survey with CFOs of Germany's Fortune 1,000 firms (non-banks) reveals that (1) there are substantial efficiency potentials in the financial chain of many firms, (2) outsourcing these secondary processes is still quite rare, and (3) prior outsourcing experience of managers has a strong impact on the evaluation of the competencies of external service providers: an experienced manager is more likely to appreciate the provider's skills, someone without outsourcing experience presumes the higher competencies inhouse.

Beck, R., and Weitzel, T. (2005)
Some Economics of Vertical Standards: Integrating SMEs in EDI Supply Chains
Electronic Markets (em) (15:4), p. 313-322 (VHB-JOURQUAL 3 Rating: B)

View Abstract
Despite the benefits associated with vertical communication standards like EDI or WebEDI, their diffusion among SMEs has failed to a surprising extent. Accordingly, SME integration into value chains is still a critical issue for IS research on standards diffusion. Goal of this contribution is to disclose the reasons for the slow diffusion of EDI and WebEDI among SMEs and to propose concrete solutions. Based on an empirical survey among SMEs in the German office supply industry, economic and technical obstacles to standard diffusion are identified. First, it is shown that EDI and especially WebEDI solutions are simply economically dominated by a widespread practice in SMEs which is using a Fax for business document exchange. Second, as many SMEs do not employ automated material management systems, they lack the necessary technical preconditions for economically viable EDI. Third, based on these findings a concrete EDI solution is delineated that accounts for the economic and technical particularities constraining SMEs. The proposed solution is successfully applied in the office supply industry today and enables SMEs to reap the benefits of bidirectional EDI while avoiding the expensive investments in EDI converter systems that have so far restrained them from participating in vertical standardization.

Beimborn, D., and Hoppen, N. (2004)
A Simulative Approach to Determining the Economic Efficiency of Software Patents

View Abstract
Abstract: Traditionally, only technical inventions such as light bulbs or pharmaceuticals were protected by patents. Nowadays software patents are a widly discussed topic in the U.S. and in Europe because of their supposed impact on national innovation rates. Based on an analysis of the determinants of successful software development, we use a bipartite probability model to compare a deregulated market without patents to a market using a patent system. Applying computer-based simulations, we analyze different scenarios to test the impact of different patent duration and width on the innovation behavior of the software market. We show that strong patent protection is globally efficient only in markets with a relatively low profit potential.

Pfaff, D., Skiera, B., and Weitzel, T. (2004)
Financial-Chain-Management: Ein generisches Modell zur Identifikation von Verbesserungspotenzialen

Weitzel, T., and König, W. (2003)
Computational Economics als wirtschaftsinformatischer Beitrag zu einer interdisziplinären Netzwerktheorie

View Abstract
In Informationsnetzen wie Intranets, Supply Chains oder EDI-Netzwerken stellen Standards Kompatibilität her und sind damit Grundlage der Realisierung von Kooperationsvorteilen. Standards konstituieren Netzwerke. Entsprechend bilden Entscheidungen über den Einsatz von Standards einen wichtigen Aufgabenbereich des betrieblichen Informationsmanagements. In diesem Beitrag wird argumentiert, dass die Entwicklung einer hierfür anwendbaren, umfassenden Netzwerktheorie als eine Kernaufgabe der Wirtschaftsinformatik angesehen wird. Ein vielversprechender Rahmen wird in der Erweiterung eines grundsätzlich ökonomisch (nutzen- und gleichgewichtstheoretisch) fundierten Vorgehens um interdisziplinäre Beiträge wie z. B. aus der Soziologie sowie um das Forschungsparadigma der Agent-Based Computational Economics (ACE) gesehen. Damit können insbesondere die institutionelle Einbettung der sozioökonomischen Netzwerkakteure sowie beschränkte Akteursrationalität und damit die komplexen gegenseitigen Abhängigkeiten von Mikro- (Akteur) und Makrostruktur (Netz) berücksichtigt werden.

Weitzel, T., Wendt, O., von Westarp, F., and König, W. (2003)
Network Effects and Diffusion Theory - Extending Economic Network Analysis
International Journal of IT Standards and Standardization Research (IJITSR) , (VHB-JOURQUAL 3 Rating: k.R.)

View Abstract
In this paper, some of the main results of an interdisciplinary research project on standards are presented and integrated into a single framework of technology diffusion. Based on network effect theory and diffusion theory, we present an agent-based simulation model that extends the traditional economical network perspective by incorporating structural determinants of networks (centrality, topology/density) from sociology and geography and individual decision making on the part of prospective technology users under realistic informational assumptions. Based upon these models, decision behavior in terms of the selection of standards and the diffusion of technological innovations in networks can be described. The model has so far served as both, a tool for developing and evaluating network strategies in practical application like EDI networks or corporate directory service planning as well as for providing theoretical insights into standardization problems and possible solutions.

Weitzel, T., Martin, S., and König, W. (2003)
Straight Through Processing auf XML-Basis im Wertpapiergeschäft

View Abstract
Ineffiziente Abwicklungsprozesse, die weltweite Beschleunigung der Abwicklungsgeschwindigkeit sowie steigende Transaktionsvolumina machen eine umfassendere Automatisierung des grenzübergreifenden Wertpapiergeschäfts erforderlich. Verschiedene Standards, meist auf der Grundlage von XML, buhlen um die Rolle als globaler bankenweiter Kommunikationsstandard. Das Ziel des vorliegenden Beitrages ist die Analyse des Status Quo des XML-Einsatzes innerhalb und zwischen Banken sowie der Bedeutung und Akzeptanz der Initiativen zur Entwicklung und Etablierung branchenweiter Standards für ein straight through processing. FpML, FIX, SWIFT und ISO 15022 werden als die bedeutendsten Standards angesehen. Viele Banken sehen bei der XML-Verwendung derzeit noch Probleme in der Dokumentengröße (Bandbreite) und -verarbeitungsgeschwindigkeit, gehen aber ausnahmslos von XML als zukünftigem Datenformat aus. Insgesamt wird aus inhaltlichen wie politischen Gründen ISO 15022 als zukünftig dominanter Standard erwartet.

Weitzel, T., Beimborn, D., and König, W. (2003)
Coordination In Networks: An Economic Equilibrium Analysis
Information Systems and e-Business Management (1:2), p. 189-211 (VHB-JOURQUAL 3 Rating: C)

View Abstract
Networks utilizing modern communication technologies can offer competitive advantages to those using them wisely. But due to the existence of network effects, planning and operating cooperation networks is difficult. In this paper, the strategic situation of individual agents deciding on network participation is analysed. A systematic equilibrium analysis using computer-based simulations reveals principal solution scenarios for network agents and shows that network cooperation problems might frequently be not as difficult to resolve as often feared. In particular, strategic situations are identified showing that a majority of individuals might be better off getting the optimal solution from a central principal and that in many cases simple information intermediation can solve the start-up problem notorious in network economics.

Tesch, T., Fankhauser, P., and Weitzel, T. (2002)
Skalierbare Verarbeitung von XML mit Infonyte-DB

View Abstract
Die zunehmende Durchdringung von IT-Architekturen mit XML führt zu immer größeren XML-Datenvolumen. Diese lassen sich mit den zur Verfügung stehenden XML-Werkzeugen nicht immer skalierbar verarbeiten. Das Produkt Infonyte-DB der Infonyte GmbH ist ein modularer XML-Kernel, der sehr ressourcenschonend große XML-Datenvolumen effizient verarbeiten kann.

Mintert, S., and Weitzel, T. (2002)
Erweiterte Gefahr: Erster XML-Virus befällt Browser und Handys
iX Magazin für professionelle Informationstechnik , (VHB-JOURQUAL 3 Rating: k.R.)

Beimborn, D., Mintert, S., and Weitzel, T. (2002)
Web Services und ebXML
WIRTSCHAFTSINFORMATIK (44:3), p. 277-280, (VHB-JOURQUAL 3 Rating: B)

View Abstract
Web Services werden häufig verstanden als Dienste, die auf dem losen Zusammenspiel von Standards wie XML, SOAP, WSDL und UDDI (s. u.) beruhen und somit als Grundlage einer unternehmens- und anwendungsübergreifenden automatisierten System-zu-System-Kommunikation dienen. Die einfachste Form findet sich als XML-RPC als Front-End an Legacy-Systemen. Gerne zitierte Beispiele für einfache Web Services umfassen Informationsabfragen (z. B. Wechselkurse) und Dienste wie Konvertierungen (z. B. HTML in XML). Vor allem zukünftige Web Services als Teile sich spontan formierender dynamischer Wertketten verlangen eine umfassende Architektur, damit sich Anbieter und Nutzer von Diensten automatisch finden und ihre Prozesse aufeinander abstimmen können. Nachfolgend werden die wichtigsten Bausteine einer solchen Web-Services-Architektur sowie das ebXML-Projekt als mögliches Rahmenwerk vorgestellt. Eine ausführlichere Darstellung mit vielen zusätzlichen Ressourcen und Beispielen steht in [BWWM02] und unter zur Verfügung.

Weitzel, T., Son, S., and König, W. (2001)
Infrastrukturentscheidungen in vernetzten Unternehmen: Eine Wirtschaftlichkeitsanalyse am Beispiel von X.500 Directory Services
WIRTSCHAFTSINFORMATIK (43:4), p. 371-381, (VHB-JOURQUAL 3 Rating: B)

Weitzel, T., Buxmann, P., König, W., and Ladner, F. (2001)
Anwendung der Extensible Markup Language (XML): Konzeption und Implementierung einer WebEDI-Lösung
WIRTSCHAFTSINFORMATIK (43:3), p. 257-267, (VHB-JOURQUAL 3 Rating: B)

Buxmann, P., Weitzel, T., and König, W. (1999)
Auswirkung alternativer Koordinationsmechanismen auf die Auswahl von Kommunikationsstandards
Journal of Business Economics (JBE) Volume 2, p.133-151, (VHB-JOURQUAL 3 Rating: B)

View Abstract
Die Entscheidung über die Nutzung von Kommunikationsstandards ist nicht nur vor dem Hintergrund der enormen Potentiale elektronischer Kommunikation bedeutsam, sondern ist notwendige Bedingung für jede Interaktion sowie für die Koordination wirtschaftlicher Aktivitäten. Durch die netzeffektbedingte Interdependenz der Standardisierungsentscheidungen der verschiedenen Akteure entsteht ein Koordinationsproblem („das Standardisierungsproblem“, das sich in Abhängigkeit von der Entscheidungsautonomie der Akteure sowohl aus zentraler als auch aus dezentraler Perspektive stellen kann. Für beide Koordinationsformen wird ein Modell entwickelt, das die Vor- und Nachteile des Einsatzes von Standards auf der Basis ökonomischer Parameter abbildet. Die Modellierung ermöglicht darüber hinaus die Untersuchung weitergehender Kooperationsformen zwischen Akteuren in Kommunikationsnetzen. Das Modell ist als ein Baustein einer allgemeinen, interdisziplinären Vernetzungstheorie im Rahmen des Sonderforschungsbereiches 403 „Vernetzung als Wettbewerbsfaktor am Beispiel der Region Rhein-Main“ entwickelt worden.

Weitzel, T., Kronenberg, R., Ladner, F., and Buxmann, P. (1999)
Die Rückkehr der EDI-Ritter - XML/EDI als Alternative zu traditionellem EDI
iX Magazin für professionelle Informationstechnik (7), pp.127-129 (VHB-JOURQUAL 3 Rating: k.R.)